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Clinical Pharmacology

WELCOME TO THE DIVISION OF CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY AT UCT

The Division is located in the Old Main Building of the Groote Schuur Hospital complex.

We strive to promote drug discovery and the rational use of medicines to serve the health needs of people in Africa through teaching, mentorship, research, and clinical consultation. We are a World Health Organization Collaborating Centre for Medicines Information

 

TEACHING

The division teaches undergraduate medical and physiotherapy students. The focus of our teaching to medical students is rational prescribing of essential medicines for primary care. Most of the teaching is done in smaller groups. Pharmacology teaching is integrated in the 2nd through to 6th MBChB years, with specific pharmacology blocks in the 4th and 5th years – we also teach physiotherapy undergraduate students.

 

POSTGRADUATE DEGREE PROGRAMMES

The Division offers post-graduate training at several scientific levels and one clinical specialist level.  

Honours Bachelor of Medical Science – BMedSc (Hons)

Master of Philosophy (MPhil)

Master of Science in Medicine – MSc (Med)

Doctor of Philosophy – PhD (Med)

Master of Medicine – MMed (Clin Pharm)

Information on course outlines is available here in the Faculty of Health Science postgraduate-programme handbook. For applications, please visit http://applyonline.uct.ac.za.

 

CLINICAL SERVICES

The division provides a clinical and laboratory pharmacology service to Groote Schuur hospital as well as secondary and primary centres within our drainage area. Therapeutic drug monitoring with input from clinical pharmacologists is offered for a wide variety of drugs, including antiretroviral and anti-tuberculosis drugs. Clinical consultation is offered to regional hospitals. The division plays an important role in providing policy advice in the rational and cost effective use of drugs for local hospitals, the Western Cape Provincial Coding Committee, the National Essential Medicines List Committee, and international guidelines on HIV, TB, and malaria. The division also contributes to national medicines regulatory and pharmacovigilance activities of the Medicines Control Council; and internationally through  the Uppsala drug safety monitoring centre. The Medicines Information Centre provides a telephonic consultation service for healthcare professionals and runs the National HIV & TB Healthcare Worker Helpline. The division produces the South African Medicines Formulary, currently in its 12th edition. 

 

RESEARCH

We conduct both pre-clinical and clinical research focused on drugs for malaria, tuberculosis, and HIV. The research in these fields is broad and encompasses drug discovery, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, pharmacometrics, pharmacogenomics, clinical trials, pharmacovigilance, and pharmacoeconomic evaluation. Our peer-reviewed publications for the last 3 years are listed below.

 

Pharmacokinetic laboratory

The laboratory plays a key research role in evaluating PK of new chemical entities in small animal models for drug discovery, and of drug/metabolite concentrations in patient samples. The analytical laboratory has been awarded funding as an International Pharmacology Specialty Laboratory from two NIH networks: the AIDS Clinical Trials Group and the International Maternal Pediatric Adolescent AIDS Clinical Trials Group. Director: Dr. Lubbe Wiesner

 

Pharmacometrics laboratory

Pharmacometrics is the science of quantifying drug and disease information. Mathematical models are used to describe the relationship between pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and individual patient characteristics. .

Head: Dr Paolo Denti

 

Antimalarial drugs

Prof Karen Barnes is the founding director of the MRC Collaborating Centre for Optimising Antimalarial Therapy. She leads the Worldwide Antimalarial Resistance Network’s pharmacology group. Her interests are in translational research from drug development, through dose optimisation in vulnerable populations to the comprehensive evaluation of changes in antimalarial treatment policy.

Dr Lubbe Wiesner heads malaria pre-clinical drug development research, in collaboration with Prof Kelly Chibale, using tissue culture and small animal models.

 

Antiretroviral therapy

Prof Gary Maartens leads research on the effectiveness, adherence, and pharmacoeconomics of antiretroviral therapy in resource-limited settings. Prof Helen McIlleron leads clinical pharmacokinetic research into antiretroviral drug interactions, and dose optimisation in children and pregnancy. Prof Karen Cohen leads the antiretroviral pharmacovigilance group. Dr Phumla Sinxadi leads pharmacogenomics studies.

 

Anti-tuberculosis drugs

Prof Helen McIlleron directs anti-tuberculosis clinical pharmacokinetic studies optimising dosing in children and pregnant women, exploring PK/PD relationships, and pharmacogenomics. Prof Gary Maartens leads research on treatment optimisation of HIV-associated tuberculosis and treatment of drug-resistant tuberculosis.

 

Publications

  • 2017

    1. Antwi S, Yang H, Enimil A, Sarfo AM, Gillani FS, Ansong D, Dompreh A, Orstin A, Opoku T, Bosomtwe D, Wiesner L, Norman J, Peloquin CA, Kwara A. Pharmacokinetics of the First-Line Antituberculosis Drugs in Ghanaian Children with Tuberculosis with or without HIV Coinfection. Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy. 2017; 61(2):e01701-16.
    2. Bienczak A, Cook A, Wiesner L, Mulenga V, Kityo C, Kekitiinwa A, Walker AS, Owen A, Gibb DM, Burger D, McIlleron H, Denti P. Effect of diurnal variation, CYP2B6 genotype and age on the pharmacokinetics of nevirapine in African children. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2017 Jan;72(1):190-199.
    3. Bienczak A, Denti P, Cook A, Wiesner L, Mulenga V, Kityo C, Kekitiinwa A, Gibb DM, Burger D, Walker AS, McIlleron H. Determinants of virological outcome and adverse events in African children treated with paediatric nevirapine fixed-dose-combination tablets. AIDS. 2017 Apr 24;31(7):905-915.
    4. Blockman M. Warfarin: better the devil you know. Cardiovascular Journal of Africa 2017;28:344-345.
    5. Bouazza N, Cressey TR, Foissac F, Bienczak A, Denti P, McIlleron H, Burger D, Penazzato M, Lallemant M, Capparelli EV, Treluyer JM, Urien S. Optimization of the strength of the efavirenz/lamivudine/abacavir fixed-dose combination for paediatric patients. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2017 Feb;72(2):490-495.
    6. Bowles S, Joubert E, de Beer D, Louw J, Brunschwig C, Njoroge M, Lawrence N,Wiesner L, Chibale K, Muller C. Intestinal Transport Characteristics and Metabolism of C-Glucosyl Dihydrochalcone, Aspalathin. Molecules (Basel, Switzerland). 2017; 22(4).
    7. Boyles TH, Brink A, Calligaro GL, Cohen C, Dheda K, Maartens G, Richards GA, van Zyl Smit R, Smith C, Wasserman S, Whitelaw AC, Feldman C. South African guideline for the management of community-acquired pneumonia in adults. Journal of Thoracic Disease 2017;9(6):1469-1502.
    8. Brill MJ, Svensson EM, Pandie M, Maartens G, Karlsson MO. Confirming model-predicted pharmacokinetic interactions between bedaquiline and lopinavir/ritonavir or nevirapine in patients with HIV and drug resistant tuberculosis. International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents 2017;49(2):212-7.
    9. Chirehwa MT, McIlleron H, Rustomjee R, Mthiyane T, Onyebujoh P, Smith P, Denti P. Pharmacokinetics of Pyrazinamide and Optimal Dosing Regimens for Drug-Sensitive and -Resistant Tuberculosis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2017;61(8):e00490-17.
    10. Cudahy PG, Wilson D, Allwood BW, Maartens G, Dawson R. Diagnostic outcomes after chest radiograph interpretation in patients with suspected tuberculosis and negative sputum smears in a high burden HIV and tuberculosis setting. Open Forum Infectious Diseases 2017;4(3):ofx123
    11. Decloedt E, Lesosky M, Maartens G, Joska J. Renal safety of lithium in HIV‑infected patients established on tenofovir disoproxil fumarate containing antiretroviral therapy: analysis from a randomized placebo‑controlled trial. AIDS Research and Therapy 2017;14:6.
    12. de Kock M, Tarning J, Workman L, Nyunt MM, Adam I, Barnes KI, Denti P. Pharmacokinetics of sulfadoxine and pyrimethamine for intermittent preventive treatment of malaria during pregnancy and after delivery. CPT: Pharmacometrics & Systems Pharmacology 2017;6:430-438.
    13. De Waal R, Cohen K, Fox MP, Stinson K, Maartens G, Boulle A, Igumbor EU, Davies MA. Changes in estimated glomerular filtration rate over time in South African HIV-1-infected patients receiving tenofovir: a retrospective cohort study. Journal of the International AIDS Society 2017;20:1-8.
    14. Dheda K, Gumbo T, Maartens G, Dooley KE, McNerney R, Murray M, Furin J, Nardell EA, London L, Lessem E, Theron G, van Helden P, Niemann S, Merker M, Dowdy D, Van Rie A, Siu GK, Pasipanodya JG, Rodrigues C, Clark TG, Sirgel FA, Esmail A, Lin HH, Atre SR, Schaaf HS, Chang KC, Lange C, Nahid P, Udwadia ZF, Horsburgh CR Jr, Churchyard GJ, Menzies D, Hesseling AC, Nuermberger E, McIlleron
    15. H, Fennelly KP, Goemaere E, Jaramillo E, Low M, Jara CM, Padayatchi N, Warren RM. The epidemiology, pathogenesis, transmission, diagnosis, and management of multidrug-resistant, extensively drug-resistant, and incurable tuberculosis. Lancet Respir Med. 2017;5(4):291-360.
    16. Dhingra SK, Redhi D, Combrinck JM, Yeo T, Okombo J, Henrich PP, Cowell AN, Gupta P, Stegman ML, Hoke JM, Cooper RA.. A Variant PfCRT Isoform Can Contribute to Plasmodium falciparum Resistance to the First-Line Partner Drug Piperaquine. mBio 2017, 8(3), pii: e00303-17.
    17. Ebrahim I, Blockman M. Metabolic acidosis in a patient with metformin overdose. S Afr Med J 2017;107(2):110-111.
    18. Engel ME, Cohen K, Gounden R, Barth DD, Kengne AP, Whitelaw AC, Francis V, Badri M, Stewart A, Dale JB, Mayosi BM, Maartens G. The Cape Town clinical decision rule for streptococcal pharyngitis in children. Pediatric Infectious Diseases Journal 2017;36(3):250-5
    19. Espinoza-Moraga M, Singh K, Njoroge M, Kaur G, Okombo J, De Kock C, Smith PJ, Wittlin S, Chibale K. Synthesis and biological characterisation of ester and amide derivatives of fusidic acid as antiplasmodial agents. Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters 27 (2017) 658–661
    20. Fortuin-de Smidt M, de Waal R, Cohen K, Technau K, Stinson K, Maartens G, Boulle A, Igumbor EU, Davies MA. First-line antiretroviral drug discontinuations in children. PLoS ONE 2017;12:e0169762
    21. Gutierrez MM, Pillai G, Felix S, Romero F, Onyango KO, Owusu-Agyei S, Asante KP, Barnes KI, Sinxadi P, Allen E, Abdulla S, Masimirembwa C, Munyoro M, Yimer G, Gebre-Mariam T, Spector J, Ogutu B. Building Capability for Clinical Pharmacology Research in Sub-Saharan Africa. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2017 Nov;102(5):786-795.
    22. Hoglund RM, Workman L, Edstein MD, Thanh NX, Quang NN, Zongo I, Ouedraogo JB, Borrmann S, Mwai L, Nsanzabana C, Price RN, Dahal P, Sambol NC, Parikh S, Nosten F, Ashley EA, Phyo AP, Lwin KM, McGready R, Day NP, Guerin PJ, White NJ, Barnes KI, Tarning J. Population Pharmacokinetic Properties of Piperaquine in Falciparum Malaria: An Individual Participant Data Meta-Analysis. PLoS Med. 2017 Jan 10;14(1):e1002212
    23. Huerga H, Shiferie F, Grebe E, Giuliani R, Ben Farhat J, Van Cutsem G, Cohen K. A comparison of self-report and antiretroviral detection to inform estimates of antiretroviral therapy coverage, viral load suppression and HIV incidence in Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa. BMC Infect Dis 2017;7:653.
    24. Janssen S, Schutz C, Ward AM, Nemes E, Wilkinson KA, Scrievn J, Huson MA, Aben N, Maartens G, Burton R, Wilkinson RJ, Grobusch MP, van der Poll T, Meintjes G. Mortality in severe HIV-TB associates with innate immune activation and dysfunction of monocytes. Clinical Infectious Diseases 2017;65:73-82.
    25. Janssen S, Schutz C, Ward AM, Huson MA, Wilkinson RJ, Burton R, Maartens G, Wilkinson KA, Meijers JC, Lutter R, Grobusch MP, Meintjes G, van der Poll T. Hemostatic changes associate with mortality in hospitalized patients with HIV-associated tuberculosis: a prospective cohort study. Journal of Infectious Diseases 2017;215:247-58.
    26. Jones ESW, Lesosky M, Blockman M, Castel S, Decloedt EH, Schwager SLU, Sturrock ED, Wiesner L, Rayner BL. Therapeutic drug monitoring of amlodipine and the Z-FHL/HHL ratio: Adherence tools in patients referred for apparent treatment-resistant hypertension. South African Medical Journal 2017; 107(10):887-891.
    27. Joshi MC, Okombo J, Nsumiwa S, Ndove J, Taylor D, Wiesner L, Hunter R, Chibale K, Egan TJ. 4‑Aminoquinoline Antimalarials Containing a Benzylmethylpyridylmethylamine Group Are Active against Drug Resistant Plasmodium falciparum and Exhibit Oral Activity in Mice. J Med Chem 2017;60:10245−56.
    28. Maartens G, Boffito M, Flexner C. Compatibility of next generation first line antiretrovirals with rifampicin-based anti-tuberculosis therapy in resource limited settings. Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS 2017;12:355-8
    29. Maartens G, Meintjes G. Resistance matters in EARNEST. [Invited comment]. Lancet HIV 2017;4:e323-4
    30. Mandimika N, Barnes KI, Chandler CI, Pace C, Allen EN. Working towards consensus on methods used to elicit participant-reported safety data in uncomplicated malaria clinical drug studies: a Delphi technique study. Malar J. 2017 Jan 28;16(1):52.
    31. Marais BJ, Heemskerk AD, Marais SS, van Crevel R, Rohlwink U, Caws M, Meintjes G, Misra UK, Mai NTH, Ruslami R, Seddon JA, Solomons R, van Toorn R, Figaji A, McIlleron H, Aarnoutse R, Schoeman JF, Wilkinson RJ, Thwaites GE; Tuberculous Meningitis International Research Consortium. Standardized Methods for Enhanced Quality and Comparability of Tuberculous Meningitis Studies. Clin Infect Dis.
    32. 2017 Feb 15;64(4):501-509.
    33. McIlleron H, Denti P, Cohn S, Mashabela F, Hoffmann JD, Shembe S, Msandiwa R, Wiesner L, Velaphi S, Lala SG, Chaisson RE, Martinson N, Dooley KE; Tshepiso Study Team. Prevention of TB using rifampicin plus isoniazid reduces nevirapine concentrations in HIV-exposed infants. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2017 Jul 1;72(7):2028-2034.
    34. Monera-Penduka TG, Maponga CC, Wolfe AR, Wiesner L, Morse GD, Nhachi CF. Effect of Moringa oleifera Lam. leaf powder on the pharmacokinetics of nevirapine in HIV-infected adults: a one sequence cross-over study. AIDS Research and Therapy. 2017; 14:12.
    35. Mouton JP, Mehta U, Rossiter DP, Maartens G, Cohen K. Interrater agreement of two adverse drug reaction causality assessment methods: A randomised comparison of the Liverpool Adverse Drug Reaction Causality Assessment Tool and the World Health Organization-Uppsala Monitoring Centre system. PLoS ONE 2017;12(2): e0172830.
    36. Mouton JP, Cohen K, Maartens G. Key toxicity issues with the WHO-recommended first-line antiretroviral therapy regimen. Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology 2016;9:901-15.
    37. Naidoo A, Naidoo K, McIlleron H, Essack S, Padayatchi N. A Review of Moxifloxacin for the Treatment of Drug-Susceptible Tuberculosis. J Clin Pharmacol. 2017 Nov;57(11):1369-1386.
    38. Naidoo A, Chirehwa M, McIlleron H, Naidoo K, Essack S, Yende-Zuma N, Kimba-Phongi E, Adamson J, Govender K, Padayatchi N, Denti P. Effect of rifampicin and efavirenz on moxifloxacin concentrations when co-administered in patients with drug-susceptible TB. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2017;72(5):1441-1449.
    39. Olliaro PL, Merle C, Mthiyane T, Bah B, Kassa F, Amukoye E, N Diaye A, Perronne C, Lienhardt C, McIlleron H, Fielding K. Effects on the QT Interval of a Gatifloxacin-Containing Regimen versus Standard Treatment of Pulmonary Tuberculosis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2017 Jun 27;61(7). pii: e01834-16.
    40. Orrell C, Cohen K, Leisegang R, Bangsberg DR, Wood R, Maartens G. Comparison of six methods to estimate adherence in an ART-naïve cohort in a resource-poor setting: which best predicts virological and resistance outcomes? AIDS Research and Therapy 2017;14:20
    41. Papavarnavas NS, Manning K, Conrad F, Govender M, Maartens G. Factors associated with loss to follow-up after occupational HIV exposure in Cape Town, South Africa: a retrospective cohort study. AIDS Research and Therapy 2017;14:23
    42. Rockwood N, Pasipanodya JG, Denti P, Sirgel F, Lesosky M, Gumbo T, Meintjes G, McIlleron H, Wilkinson RJ. Concentration-Dependent Antagonism and Culture Conversion in Pulmonary Tuberculosis. Clin Infect Dis. 2017 May 15;64(10):1350-1359.
    43. Singh K, Okombo J, Brunschwig C, Ndubi F, Barnard L, Wilkinson C, Njogu PM, Njoroge M, Laing L, Machado M, Prudêncio M, Reader J, Botha M, Nondaba S, Birkholtz LM, Lauterbach S, Churchyard A, Coetzer TL, Burrows JN, Yeates C, Denti P, Wiesner L, Egan TJ, Wittlin S, Chibale K. Antimalarial Pyrido[1,2-a]benzimidazoles: Lead Optimization, Parasite Life Cycle Stage Profile, Mechanistic Evaluation, Killing Kinetics, and in Vivo Oral Efficacy in a Mouse Model. J. Med. Chem. 2017;60:1432−48.
    44. Singh K, Okombo J, Brunschwig C, Ndubi F, Barnard L, Wilkinson C, Njogu PM, Njoroge M, Laing L, Machado M. Antimalarial Pyrido [1, 2-a] benzimidazoles: Lead Optimization, Parasite Life Cycle Stage Profile, Mechanistic Evaluation, Killing Kinetics, and in Vivo Oral Efficacy in a Mouse Model. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 2017;60:1432-1448.
    45. Sumner T, Houben RM, Rangaka MX, Maartens G, Boulle A, Wilkinson RJ, White RG. Post-treatment effect of isoniazid preventive therapy on tuberculosis incidence in HIV-infected individuals on antiretroviral therapy. AIDS 2016;30:1279-86.
    46. Variava E, Sigauke FR, Norman J, Rakgokong M, Muchichwa P, Mochan A, Maartens G, Martinson NA. Late efavirenz-induced ataxia and encephalopathy: a case series. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 2017;75:577-9.
    47. Vanaerschot M, Lucantoni L, Li T, Combrinck JM, Ruecker A, Kumar TS, Rubiano K, Ferreira PE, Siciliano G, Gulati S, Henrich PP. Hexahydroquinolines are antimalarial candidates with potent blood-stage and transmission-blocking activity. Nature Microbiology 2017;2(10):1403-14.
    48. Wicht KJ, Combrinck JM, Smith PJ, Hunter R, Egan TJ. Identification and Mechanistic Evaluation of Hemozoin-Inhibiting Triarylimidazoles Active against Plasmodium falciparum. ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters 2017;8:201-205.
  • 2016

    1. Abrahams Z, Lesosky M, Levitt N, Maartens G, Dave J [joint senior authorship]. Changes in body fat distribution on dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry in black South Africans starting first-line antiretroviral therapy. AIDS Patient Care and STDs 2016;30(10):455-62.
    2. Adams M, Barnard L, de Kock C, Smith PJ, Wiesner L, Chibale K, Smith GS. Cyclopalladated organosilane-tethered thiosemicarbazones: novel strategies for improving antiplasmodial activity. Dalton Trans. 2016 Apr 7;45(13):5514-20.
    3. Adams M, Stringer T, de Kock C, Smith PJ, Land KM, Liu N, Tam C, Cheng LW, Njoroge M, Chibale K, Smith GS. Bioisosteric ferrocenyl-containing quinolines with antiplasmodial and antitrichomonal properties. Dalton Trans. 2016 Nov 29;45 (47):19086-19095.
    4. Baartzes N, Stringer T, Chellan P, Combrinck JM, Smith PJ, Hutton AT, Smith GS. Synthesis, characterization, antiplasmodial evaluation and electrochemical studies of water-soluble heterobimetallic ferrocenyl complexes. Inorganica Chimica Acta 2016;446:111-115.
    5. Bana TM, Lesosky M, Pepper DJ, van der Plas H, Schutz C, Goliath R, Morroni C, Mendelson M, Maartens G, Wilkinson RJ, Meintjes G. Prolonged tuberculosis-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome: characteristics and risk factorsBMC Infectious Diseases 2016;16(1):518.
    6. Bekker A, Schaaf HS, Draper HR, van der Laan L, Murray S, Wiesner L, Donald PR, McIlleron HM, Hesseling AC. Pharmacokinetics of Rifampin, Isoniazid, Pyrazinamide, and Ethambutol in Infants Dosed According to Revised WHO-Recommended Treatment Guidelines. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2016 Mar 25;60(4):2171-9.
    7. Bienczak A, Denti P, Cook A, Wiesner L, Mulenga V, Kityo C, Kekitiinwa A, Gibb DM, Burger D, Walker AS, McIlleron H. 2016. Plasma efavirenz exposure, sex, and age predict virological response in HIV-infected African children. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2016;73(2):161-8.
    8. Bienczak A, Cook A, Wiesner L, Olagunju A, Mulenga V, Kityo C, Kekitiinwa A, Owen A, Walker AS, Gibb DM, McIlleron H, Burger D, Denti P. The impact of genetic polymorphisms on the pharmacokinetics of efavirenz in African children. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2016 Jul;82(1):185-98.
    9. Bienczak A, Cook A, Wiesner L, Mulenga V, Kityo C, Kekitiinwa A, Walker AS, Owen A, Gibb DM, Burger D, McIlleron H, Denti P. Effect of diurnal variation, CYP2B6 genotype and age on the pharmacokinetics of nevirapine in African children. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2017;72(1):190-199.
    10. Bouazza N, Cressey TR, Foissac F, Bienczak A, Denti P, McIlleron H, Burger D, Penazzato M, Lallemant M, Capparelli E V., Treluyer J-M, Urien S. 2017. Optimization of the strength of the efavirenz/lamivudine/abacavir fixed-dose combination for paediatric patients. J Antimicrob Chemother 72:490–495.
    11. Buzzatti N, De Bonis M, Denti P, Barili F, Schiavi D, Di Giannuario G, La Canna G, Alfieri O. What is a "good" result after transcatheter mitral repair? Impact of 2+ residual mitral regurgitation. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2016 Jan;151(1):88-96
    12. Chirehwa MT, Rustomjee R, Mthiyane T, Onyebujoh P, Smith P, McIlleron H, Denti P. Model-Based Evaluation of Higher Doses of Rifampin Using a Semimechanistic Model Incorporating Autoinduction and Saturation of Hepatic Extraction. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2016 Apr 22;60(5):3262.
    13. Chughlay MF, Kramer N, Spearman CW, Werfalli M, Engel ME, Cohen K. N-acetylcysteine for non-paracetamol drug-induced liver injury: a systematic review. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2016;81(6):1021-9
    14. Court R, Gordon M, Cohen K, Stewart A, Gosnell B, Wiesner L, Maartens G. Random lopinavir concentrations predict resistance on lopinavir-based antiretroviral therapy. International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents 2016;48(2):158-62.
    15. Dave JA, Levitt NS, Ross IL, Lacerda M, Maartens G, Blom D. Antiretroviral therapy increases the prevalence of dyslipidemia in South African HIV-infected patients. PLoS ONE 2016;11(3):e0151911.
    16. Decloedt E, Freeman C, Howels F, Casson-Cook M, Lesosky M, Koutsilieri E, Lovestone S, Maartens G, Joska J. Moderate to severe HIV associated neurocognitive impairment: a randomized placebo controlled trial of lithium. Medicine (Baltimore) 2016 Nov;95(46):e5401.
    17. Denoeud-Ndam L, Dicko A, Baudin E, Guindo O, Grandesso F, Diawara H, Sissoko S, Sanogo K, Traoré S, Keita S, Barry A, de Smet M, Lasry E, Smit M, Wiesner L, Barnes KI, Djimde AA, Guerin PJ, Grais RF, Doumbo OK, Etard JF. Efficacy of artemether-lumefantrine in relation to drug exposure in children with and without severe acute malnutrition: an open comparative intervention study in Mali and Niger. BMC Med. 2016 Oct 24;14(1):167.
    18. Denti P, Martinson N, Cohn S, Mashabela F, Hoffmann J, Msandiwa R, Castel S, Wiesner L, Chaisson RE, McIlleron H, Dooley KE, Tshepiso Study Team. 2016. Population Pharmacokinetics of Rifampin in Pregnant Women with Tuberculosis and HIV Coinfection in Soweto, South Africa. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 60:1234–41.
    19. De Waal R, Cohen K, Fox MP, Stinson K, Maartens G, Boulle A, Davies MA. Clinician compliance with laboratory monitoring and prescribing guidelines in HIV1-infected patients receiving tenofovir. South African Medical Journal 2016;106:369-71.
    20. Dheda K, Esmail A, Limberis J, Maartens G. Selected questions and controversies about bedaquiline: a view from the field. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 20(12):S24–S32
    21. Dheda K, Barry CE, Maartens G. Tuberculosis. Lancet 2016;387:1211-26.
    22. Ekengard E, Kumar K, Fogeron T, de Kock C, Smith PJ, Haukka M, Monari M, Nordlander E. Pentamethylcyclopentadienyl-rhodium and iridium complexes containing (N^N and N^O) bound chloroquine analogue ligands: synthesis, characterization and antimalarial properties. Dalton Trans. 2016 Mar 7;45(9):3905-17.
    23. Espinoza-Moraga M, Singh K, Njoroge M, Kaur G, Okombo J, De Kock C, Smith PJ, Wittlin S, Chibale K. Synthesis and biological characterisation of ester and amide derivatives of fusidic acid as antiplasmodial agents. Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters 2017;27:658–661
    24. Gabryszewski SJ, Dhingra SK, Combrinck JM, Lewis IA, Callaghan PS, Hassett MR, Siriwardana A, Henrich PP, Lee AH, Gnadig NF, Musset L5, Llinas M, Egan TJ, Roepe PD, Fidock DA. Evolution of Fitness Cost-Neutral Mutant PfCRT Conferring P. falciparum 4-Aminoquinoline Drug Resistance Is Accompanied by Altered Parasite Metabolism and Digestive Vacuole Physiology. PLoS Pathog 2016;12(11): e1005976.
    25. Gibhard L, Pravin K, Abay E, Wilhelm A, Swart K, Lawrence N, Khoury R, van der Westhuizen J, Smith P, Wiesner L. In Vitro and In Vivo Pharmacokinetics of Aminoalkylated Diarylpropanes NP085 and NP102. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2016 Apr 22;60(5):3065-9.
    26. Hennig S, Svensson EM, Niebecker R, Fourie PB, Weiner MH, Bonora S, Peloquin CA, Gallicano K, Flexner C, Pym A, Vis P, Olliaro PL, McIlleron H, Karlsson MO. Population pharmacokinetic drug-drug interaction pooled analysis of existing data for rifabutin and HIV PIs. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2016 May;71(5):1330-40.
    27. Hoffmann CJ, Cohn S, Mashabela F, Hoffmann JD, McIlleron H, Denti P, Haas DW, Dooley KE, Martinson NA, Chaisson RE. Treatment Failure, Drug Resistance, and CD4 T-Cell Count Decline Among Postpartum Women on Antiretroviral Therapy in South Africa. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2016 Jan 1;71(1):31-7.
    28. Huerga H, Van Cutsem G, Ben Farhat J, Reid M, Bouhenia M, Maman D, Wiesner L, Etard JF, Ellman T. Who Needs to Be Targeted for HIV Testing and Treatment in KwaZulu-Natal? Results from a Population-Based Survey. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2016 Dec 1;73(4):411-418. PubMed PMID: 27243903; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5172512.
    29. Karamchand S, Leisegang R, Schomaker M, Maartens G, Hislop M, Dave JA, Levitt NS, Walters L, Cohen K. Risk factors for incident diabetes in a cohort taking first line non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-based antiretroviral therapy. Medicine (Baltimore) 2016;95:e2844.
    30. Kim AA, Mukui I, Young PW, Mirjahangir J, Mwanyumba S, Wamicwe J, Bowen N, Wiesner L, Ng'ang'a L, De Cock KM; KAIS Study Group. Undisclosed HIV infection and antiretroviral therapy use in the Kenya AIDS indicator survey 2012: relevance to national targets for HIV diagnosis and treatment. AIDS. 2016 Nov 13;30(17):2685-2695.
    31. Kim AA, Mukui I, Young PW, Mirjahangir J, Mwanyumba S, Wamicwe J, Bowen N, Wiesner L, Ng'ang'a L, De Cock KM; KAIS Study Group. Undisclosed HIV infection and ART use in the Kenya AIDS indicator survey 2012: relevance to targets for HIV diagnosis and treatment in Kenya. AIDS. 2016 Nov 13;30(17):2685-2695.
    32. Kredo T, Mauff K, Workman L, Van der Walt JS, Wiesner L, Smith PJ, Maartens G, Cohen K, Barnes KI. The interaction between artemether-lumefantrine and lopinavir/ritonavir-based antiretroviral therapy in HIV-1 infected patients. BMC Infectious Diseases 2016;16:30.
    33. Kwara A, Enimil A, Gillani FS, Yang H, Sarfo AM, Dompreh A, Ortsin A, Osei-Tutu L, Kwarteng Owusu S, Wiesner L, Norman J, Kurpewski J, Peloquin CA, Ansong D, Antwi S. Pharmacokinetics of First-Line Antituberculosis Drugs Using WHO Revised Dosage in Children With Tuberculosis With and Without HIV Coinfection. J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc. 2016 Dec;5(4):356-365.
    34. La Canna G, Denti P, Buzzatti N, Alfieri O. Recent developments in percutaneous mitral valve treatment. Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther. 2016 Feb;14(2):217-28.
    35. Le Manach C, Nchinda AT, Paquet T, Gonzàlez Cabrera D, Younis Y, Han Z, Bashyam S, Zabiulla M, Taylor D, Lawrence N, White KL, Charman SA, Waterson D, Witty MJ, Wittlin S, Botha ME, Nondaba SH, Reader J, Birkholtz LM, Jiménez-Díaz MB, Martínez MS, Ferrer S, Angulo-Barturen I, Meister S, Antonova-Koch Y, Winzeler EA, Street LJ, Chibale K. Identification of a Potential Antimalarial Drug Candidate from a Series of 2-Aminopyrazines by Optimization of Aqueous Solubility and Potency across the Parasite Life Cycle. J Med Chem. 2016 Nov 10;59(21):9890-9905.
    36. Levitt NS, Peer N, Steyn K, Lombard C, Maartens G, Lambert EV, Dave JA. Increased risk of dysglycaemia in South Africans with HIV; especially those on protease inhibitors. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice 119 (2016) 41-47
    37. Maartens G, Benson CA. Linezolid for Treating Tuberculosis: A Delicate Balancing Act. EBioMedicine. 2015 Oct 21;2(11):1568-9.
    38. Maneli MH, Wiesner L, Tinguely C, Davids LM, Spengane Z, Smith P, van Wyk JC, Jardine A, Khumalo NP. Combinations of potent topical steroids, mercury and hydroquinone are common in internationally manufactured skin-lightening products: a spectroscopic study. Clin Exp Dermatol. 2016 Mar;41(2):196-201.
    39. McIlleron H, Hundt H, Smythe W, Bekker A, Winckler J, van der Laan L, Smith P, Zar HJ, Hesseling AC, Maartens G, Wiesner L, van Rie A. Bioavailability of two licensed paediatric rifampicin suspensions: implications for quality control programmes. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2016 Jul;20(7):915-9.
    40. Moholisa RR, Schomaker M, Kuhn L, Castel S, Wiesner L, Coovadia A, Strehlau R, Patel F, Pinillos F, Abrams EJ, Maartens G, McIlleron H. Effect of Lopinavir and Nevirapine Concentrations on Viral Outcomes in Protease Inhibitor-experienced HIV-infected Children. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2016 Dec;35(12):e378-e383.
    41. Mouton JP, Njuguna CW, Kramer N, Stewart A, Mehta U, Blockman M, Fortuin-De Smidt M, De Waal R, Parrish AG, Wilson DPK, Igumbor EU, Aynalem G, Dheda M, Maartens G, Cohen K. Adverse drug reactions causing admission to medical wards: A cross-sectional survey at 4 hospitals in South Africa. Medicine (Baltimore) 2016; 95:e3437
    42. Mpeta B, Kampira E, Castel S, Mpye KL, Soko ND, Wiesner L, Smith P, Skelton M, Lacerda M, Dandara C. Differences in genetic variants in lopinavir disposition among HIV-infected Bantu Africans. Pharmacogenomics. 2016 May;17(7):679-90.
    43. Mulenga V, Musiime V, Kekitiinwa A, Cook AD, Abongomera G, Kenny J, Chabala C, Mirembe G, Asiimwe A, Owen-Powell E, Burger D, McIlleron H, Klein N, Chintu C, Thomason MJ, Kityo C, Walker AS, Gibb DM; CHAPAS-3 trial team. Abacavir, zidovudine, or stavudine as paediatric tablets for African HIV-infected children (CHAPAS-3): an open-label, parallel-group, randomised controlled trial. Lancet Infect Dis. 2016 Feb;16(2):169-79.
    44. Ngwane AH, Panayides JL, Chouteau F, Macingwana L, Viljoen A, Baker B, Madikane E, de Kock C, Wiesner L, Chibale K, Parkinson CJ, Mmutlane EM, van Helden P, Wiid I. Design, synthesis, and In vitro antituberculosis activity of 2(5H)-Furanone derivatives. IUBMB Life. 2016 Aug;68(8):612-20.
    45. Njuguna C, Stewart A, Mouton JP, Blockman M, Maartens G, Swart A, Chisholm B, Jones J, Dheda M, Igumbor EU, Cohen K. Adverse Drug Reactions Reported to a National HIV & Tuberculosis Health Care Worker Hotline in South Africa: Description and Prospective Follow-Up of Reports. Drug Safety 2016 Feb;39(2):159-69.
    46. Njuguna C, Swart A, Blockman M, Maartens G, Chisholm B, Stewart A, Uys A, Cohen K. Cases of antiretroviral-associated gynaecomastia reported to the National HIV & Tuberculosis Health Care Worker Hotline in South Africa. AIDS Research and Therapy 2016 Nov 16;13:40.
    47. Orrell C, Bienczak A, Cohen K, Bangsberg D, Wood R, Maartens G, Denti P. Effect of mid-dose efavirenz concentrations and CYP2B6 genotyping on viral suppression in patients on first-line ART. International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents 2016 Jun;47(6):466-72.
    48. Pandie M, Wiesner L, McIlleron H, Hughes J, Conradie F, Variava E, Maartens G. Drug-drug interactions between bedaquiline and the antiretrovirals lopinavir-ritonavir and nevirapine in HIV-infected patients with drug resistant tuberculosis. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 2016;71:1037-40.
    49. Rockwood N, Meintjes G, Chirehwa M, Wiesner L, McIlleron H, Wilkinson RJ, Denti P. HIV-1 Coinfection Does Not Reduce Exposure to Rifampicin, Isoniazid, and Pyrazinamide in South African Tuberculosis Outpatients. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2016 Sep 23;60(10):6050-9.
    50. Sinxadi PZ, McIlleron HM, Dave JA, Smith PJ, Levitt NS, Haas DW, Maartens G. Plasma efavirenz concentrations are associated with plasma lipid and glucose concentrations. Medicine (Baltimore). 2016 Jan;95(2):e2385.
    51. Stewart A, Lehloenya R, Boulle A, de Waal R, Maartens G, Cohen K. Severe antiretroviral-associated skin reactions in South African patients: a case series and case-control analysis. Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety 2016;25:1313-9.
    52. Stringer T, De Kock C, Guzgay H, Okombo J, Liu J, Kanetake S, Kim J, Tam C, Cheng LW, Smith PJ, Hendricks DT, Land KM, Egan TJ, Smith GS. Mono- and multimeric ferrocene congeners of quinoline-based polyamines as potential antiparasitics. Dalton Trans. 2016 Sep 14;45(34):13415-26.
    53. Sumner T, Houben RM, Rangaka MX, Maartens G, Boulle A, Wilkinson RJ, White RG. Post-treatment effect of isoniazid preventive therapy on tuberculosis incidence in HIV-infected individuals on antiretroviral therapy. AIDS 2016;30:1279-86.
    54. Swart M, Evans J, Skelton M, Castel S, Wiesner L, Smith PJ, Dandara C. An Expanded Analysis of Pharmacogenetics Determinants of Efavirenz Response that Includes 3'-UTR Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms among Black South African HIV/AIDS Patients. Front Genet. 2016 Jan 7;6:356.
    55. van Schalkwyk DA, Nash MN, Shafik SH, Summers RL, Lehane AM, Smith PJ, Martin RE. Verapamil-Sensitive Transport of Quinacrine and Methylene Blue via the Plasmodium falciparum Chloroquine Resistance Transporter Reduces the Parasite's Susceptibility to these Tricyclic Drugs. J Infect Dis. 2016 Mar 1;213(5):800-10.
    56. Wallis L, Malan M, Gouws C, Steyn D, Ellis S, Abay E, Wiesner L, Otto DP, Hamman J. Evaluation of Isolated Fractions of Aloe vera Gel Materials on Indinavir Pharmacokinetics: In vitro and in vivo Studies. Curr Drug Deliv. 2016;13(3):471-80.
    57. Wasserman S, Meintjes G, Maartens G. Linezolid in the treatment of drug-resistant tuberculosis: the challenge of its narrow therapeutic index. Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy 2016;14(10):901-15.
    58. Wicht KJ, Combrinck JM, Smith PJ, Hunter R, Egan TJ. Identification and SAR Evaluation of Hemozoin-Inhibiting Benzamides Active against Plasmodium falciparum. J Med Chem. 2016 Jul 14;59(13):6512-30.
    59. Zuma NH, Smit FJ, de Kock C, Combrinck J, Smith PJ, N'Da DD. Synthesis and biological evaluation of a series of non-hemiacetal ester derivatives of artemisinin. Eur J Med Chem. 2016 Oct 21;122:635-46.
  • 2015

    1. Abay ET, van der Westuizen JH, Swart KJ, Gibhard L, Lawrence N, Dambuza N, Wilhelm A, Pravin K, Wiesner L. Efficacy and pharmacokinetic evaluation of a novel anti-malarial compound (NP046) in a mouse model. Malar J. 2015 Jan 6;14:8.
    2. Abdissa A, Olsen MF, Yilma D, Tesfaye M, Girma T, Christiansen M, Hagan CM, Wiesner L, Castel S, Aseffa A, McIlleron H, Petersen C, Friis H, Andersen AB. Lipid-based nutrient supplements do not affect efavirenz but lower plasma nevirapine concentrations in Ethiopian adult HIV patients. HIV Medicine 2015;16:403– 11.
    3. Abrahams Z, Dave JA, Maartens G, Levitt NS. Changes in blood pressure, glucose levels, insulin secretion and anthropometry after long term exposure to antiretroviral therapy in South African women. AIDS Res Ther 2015;12:24.
    4. Adams M, de Kock C, Smith PJ, Land KM, Liu N, Hopper M, Hsiao A, Burgoyne AR, Stringer T, Meyer M, Wiesner L, Chibale K, Smith GS. Improved antiparasitic activity by incorporation of organosilane entities into half-sandwich ruthenium(II) and rhodium(III) thiosemicarbazone complexes. Dalton Trans 2015;44(5):2456-68.
    5. Antel K, Singh N, Chisholm B, Heckmann JM: Encephalopathy after persistent vomiting: Three cases of non-alcohol-related Wernicke’s encephalopathy: S Afr Med J 2015;105(6):442-3.
    6. Brink AJ, Cotton M, Feldman C, Finlayson H, Friedman R, Green R, Hendson W, Hockman M, Maartens G, Madhi S, Reubenson G, Silverbauer E, Zietsman I. Updated recommendations for the management of upper respiratory tract infections in South Africa. S Afr Med J. 2015;105(5):344-52.
    7. Buzzatti N, Maisano F, Latib A, Taramasso M, Denti P, La Canna G, Colombo A, Alfieri O. Comparison of outcomes of percutaneous MitraClip versus surgical repair or replacement for degenerative mitral regurgitation in octogenarians. Am J Cardiol. 2015;115(4):487-92.
    8. Calitz C, Gouws C, Viljoen J, Steenekamp J, Wiesner L, Abay E, Hamman J. Herb-Drug Pharmacokinetic Interactions: Transport and Metabolism of Indinavir in the Presence of Selected Herbal Products. Molecules 2015;20(12):22113-27.
    9. Chigutsa E, Pasipanodya JG, Visser ME, van Helden PD, Smith PJ, Sirgel FA, Gumbo T, McIlleron H. Impact of nonlinear interactions of pharmacokinetics and MICs on sputum bacillary kill rates as a marker of sterilizing effect in tuberculosis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2015;59(1):38-45.
    10. Chirehwa MT, Rustomjee R, Mthiyane T, Onyebujoh P, Smith P, McIlleron H, Denti P. Model-Based Evaluation of Higher Doses of Rifampin Using a Semimechanistic Model Incorporating Autoinduction and Saturation of Hepatic Extraction. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2015;60(1):487-94.
    11. Chopra R, de Kock C, Smith P, Chibale K, Singh K. Ferrocene-pyrimidine conjugates: Synthesis, electrochemistry, physicochemical properties and antiplasmodial activities. Eur J Med Chem 2015;100:1-9.
    12. Chughlay MF, Njuguna C, Maartens G, Cohen K.: Acute interstitial nephritis caused by lopinavir/ritonavir in a surgeon receiving antiretroviral postexposure prophylaxis. AIDS 2015;29:503-6.
    13.  Chughlay MF, Kramer N, Werfalli M, Spearman W, Engel ME, Cohen K. N-acetylcysteine for non-paracetamol drug-induced liver injury: a systematic review protocol. Syst Rev 2015;4:84.
    14. Combrinck JM, Fong KY, Gibhard L, Smith PJ, Wright DW, Egan TJ. Optimization of a multi-well colorimetric assay to determine haem species in Plasmodium falciparum in the presence of anti-malarials. Malar J 2015 Jun 24;14:253.
    15. Dambuza NS, Smith P, Evans A, Norman J, Taylor D, Andayi A, Egan T, Chibale K, Wiesner L. Antiplasmodial activity, in vivo pharmacokinetics and anti-malarial efficacy evaluation of hydroxypyridinone hybrids in a mouse model. Malar J 2015 Dec 16;14(1):505.
    16. Dambuza N, Smith P, Evans A, Taylor D, Chibale K, Wiesner L. A Pharmacokinetic Study of Antimalarial 3,5-Diaryl-2-aminopyridine Derivatives. Malar Res Treat. 2015;2015:405962.
    17. Dave JA, Cohen K, Micklesfield LK, Maartens G, Levitt NS. Antiretroviral Therapy, Especially Efavirenz, Is Associated with Low Bone Mineral Density in HIV-Infected South Africans. PLoS One 2015 Dec 3;10(12):e0144286.
    18. Dawson R, Narunsky K, Carman D, Gupte N, Whitelaw A, Efron A, Barnes GL, Hoffman J, Chaisson RE, McIlleron H, Dorman SE. Two-stage activity-safety study of daily rifapentine during intensive phase treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis: Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 2015;19(7):780–6.
    19. Decloedt EH, Rosenkranz B, Maartens G, Joska J. Central nervous system penetration of antiretroviral drugs: pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic and pharmacogenomic considerations. Clin Pharmacokinetics 2015 Jun;54(6):581-98.
    20. Decloedt EH, van der Walt JS, McIlleron H, Wiesner L, Maartens G. The pharmacokinetics of lopinavir/ritonavir when given with isoniazid in South African HIV-infected individuals. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 2015;19:1194-6.
    21. Denoeud-Ndam L, Dicko A, Baudin E, Guindo O, Grandesso F, Sagara I, Lasry E, Palma PP, Parra AM, Stepniewska K, Djimde AA, Barnes KI, Doumbo OK, Etard JF. A multi-center, open-label trial to compare the efficacy and pharmacokinetics of Artemether-Lumefantrine in children with severe acute malnutrition versus children without severe acute malnutrition: study protocol for the MAL-NUT study. BMC Infect Dis. 2015 Jun 12;15:228.
    22. Denti P, Jeremiah K, Chigutsa E, Faurholt-Jepsen D, PrayGod G, Range N, Castel S, Wiesner L, Hagen CM, Christiansen M, Changalucha J, McIlleron H, Friis H, Andersen AB. Pharmacokinetics of Isoniazid, Pyrazinamide, and Ethambutol in Newly Diagnosed Pulmonary TB Patients in Tanzania. PLoS One 2015 Oct 26;10(10):e0141002.
    23. Denti P, Martinson N, Cohn S, Mashabela F, Hoffmann J, Msandiwa R, Castel S, Wiesner L, Chaisson RE, McIlleron H, Dooley KE; Tshepiso Study Team. Population pharmacokinetics of rifampicin in pregnant women with tuberculosis and HIV co-infection in Soweto, South Africa. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2015;60:1234-41.
    24. Dooley KE, Denti P, Martinson N, Cohn S, Mashabela F, Hoffmann J, Haas DW, Hull J, Msandiwa R, Castel S, Wiesner L, Chaisson RE, McIlleron H. Pharmacokinetics of efavirenz and treatment of HIV-1 among pregnant women with and without tuberculosis coinfection. J Infect Dis 2015 Jan 15;211(2):197-205.
    25. du Plessis LH, Govender K, Denti P, Wiesner L. In vivo efficacy and bioavailability of lumefantrine: Evaluating the application of Pheroid technology. Eur J Pharm Biopharm 2015 Nov;97(Pt A):68-77.
    26. Gabriels G, Lambert M, Smith P, Wiesner L, Hiss D. Melamine contamination in nutritional supplements--Is it an alarm bell for the general consumer, athletes, and 'Weekend Warriors'? Nutr J. 2015 Jul 17;14:69.
    27. Garcia-Prats AJ, Draper HR, Thee S, Dooley KE, McIlleron HM, Seddon JA, Wiesner L, Castel S, Schaaf HS, Hesseling AC. Pharmacokinetics and Safety of Ofloxacin in Children with Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2015 Oct;59(10):6073-9.
    28. Gonzàlez Cabrera D, Douelle F, Le Manach C, Han Z, Paquet T, Taylor D, Njoroge M, Lawrence N, Wiesner L, Waterson D, Witty MJ, Wittlin S, Street LJ, Chibale K. Structure-Activity Relationship Studies of Orally Active Antimalarial 2,4-Diamino-thienopyrimidines. J Med Chem 2015 Sep 24;58(18):7572-9.
    29. Govender K, Gibhard L, Du Plessis L, Wiesner L. Development and validation of a LC-MS/MS method for the quantitation of lumefantrine in mouse whole blood and plasma. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sc. 2015 Mar 15;985:6-13.
    30. Gumbo T, Pasipanodya JG, Wash P, Burger A, McIlleron H. Reply to "breakpoints and drug exposure are inevitably closely linked". Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2015 Feb;59(2):1385.
    31. Hennig S, Naiker S, Reddy T, Egan D, Kellerman T, Wiesner L, Owen A, McIlleron H, Pym A. Effect of SLCO1B1 Polymorphisms on Rifabutin Pharmacokinetics in African HIV-Infected Patients with Tuberculosis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2015 Oct 19;60(1):617-20.
    32. Kaur H, Machado M, de Kock C, Smith P, Chibale K, Prudêncio M, Singh K. Primaquine-pyrimidine hybrids: synthesis and dual-stage antiplasmodial activity. Eur J Med Chem 2015 Aug 28;101:266-73.
    33. Kaur H, Balzarini J, de Kock C, Smith PJ, Chibale K, Singh K. Synthesis, antiplasmodial activity and mechanistic studies of pyrimidine-5-carbonitrile and quinoline hybrids. Eur J Med Chem 2015 Aug 28;101:52-62.
    34. Kerpel-Fronius S, Rosenkranz B, Allen E, Bass R, Mainard JD, Dodoo A, Dubois DJ, Hela M, Kern S, Massud J, Silva H, Whitty J. Education and training for medicines development, regulation, and clinical research in emerging countries. Front Pharmacol. 2015 Apr 14;6:80.
    35. Lai RP, Meintjes G, Wilkinson KA, Graham CM, Marais S, Van der Plas H, Deffur A, Schutz C, Bloom C, Munagala I, Anguiano E, Goliath R, Maartens G, Banchereau J, Chaussabel D, O'Garra A, Wilkinson RJ. HIV-tuberculosis-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome is characterized by Toll-like receptor and inflammasome signalling. Nat Commun 2015 Sep 24;6:8451.
    36. Luetkemeyer AF, Rosenkranz SL, Lu D, Grinsztejn B, Sanchez J, Ssemmanda M, Sanne I, McIlleron H, Havlir DV, Haas DW; Adult AIDS Clinical Trials Group A5221 and A5243 Study Teams. Combined effect of CYP2B6 and NAT2 genotype on plasma efavirenz exposure during rifampin-based antituberculosis therapy in the STRIDE study. Clin Infect Dis 2015 Jun 15;60(12):1860-3.
    37. Maartens G, Meintjes G. Lower-dose efavirenz: what is needed before implementation? Lancet Infect Dis. 2015 Jul;15(7):749-51.
    38. Maartens G, Benson CA. Linezolid for Treating Tuberculosis: A Delicate Balancing Act. EBioMedicine. 2015 Oct 21;2(11):1568-9.
    39. McIlleron H, Abdel-Rahman S, Dave JA, Blockman M, Owen A. Special populations and pharmacogenetic issues in tuberculosis drug development and clinical research. J Infect Dis 2015 Jun 15;211 Suppl 3:S115-25.
    40. Meintjes G, Dunn L, Coetsee M, Hislop M, Leisegang R, Regensberg L, Maartens G. Third-line antiretroviral therapy in Africa: effectiveness in a Southern African retrospective cohort study. AIDS Res Ther 2015 Dec 1;12:39.
    41. Melariri P, Kalombo L, Nkuna P, Dube A, Hayeshi R, Ogutu B, Gibhard L, deKock C, Smith P, Wiesner L, Swai H. Oral lipid-based nanoformulation of tafenoquine enhanced bioavailability and blood stage antimalarial efficacy and led to a reduction in human red blood cell loss in mice. Int J Nanomedicine 2015 Feb 20;10:1493-503.
    42. Mhandire D, Lacerda M, Castel S, Mhandire K, Zhou D, Swart M, Shamu T, Smith P, Musingwini T, Wiesner L, Stray-Pedersen B, Dandara C. Effects of CYP2B6 and CYP1A2 Genetic Variation on Nevirapine Plasma Concentration and Pharmacodynamics as Measured by CD4 Cell Count in Zimbabwean HIV-Infected Patients. OMICS 2015 Sep;19(9):553-62.
    43. Moultrie H, McIlleron H, Sawry S, Kellermann T, Wiesner L, Kindra G, Gous H, Van Rie A. Pharmacokinetics and safety of rifabutin in young HIV-infected children receiving rifabutin and lopinavir/ritonavir. J Antimicrob Chemother 2015 Feb;70(2):543-9.
    44. Mouton JP, Mehta U, Parrish AG, Wilson DP, Stewart A, Njuguna CW, Kramer N, Maartens G, Blockman M, Cohen K. Mortality from adverse drug reactions in adult medical inpatients at four hospitals in South Africa: a cross-sectional survey. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2015 Oct;80(4):818-26.
    45. Nachman S, Ahmed A, Amanullah F, Becerra MC, Botgros R, Brigden G, Browning R, Gardiner E, Hafner R, Hesseling A, How C, Jean-Philippe P, Lessem E, Makhene M, Mbelle N, Marais B, McIlleron H, McNeeley DF, Mendel C, Murray S, Navarro E, Anyalechi EG, Porcalla AR, Powell C, Powell M, Rigaud M, Rouzier V, Samson P, Schaaf HS, Shah S, Starke J, Swaminathan S, Wobudeya E, Worrell C. Towards early inclusion of children in tuberculosis drugs trials: a consensus statement. Lancet Infect Dis 2015 Jun;15(6):711-20.
    46. Ndjeka N, Conradie F, Schnippel K, Hughes J, Bantubani N, Ferreira H, Maartens G, Mametja D, Meintjes G, Padanilam X, Variava E, Pym A, Pillay Y. Treatment of drug-resistant tuberculosis with bedaquiline in a high HIV prevalence setting: an interim cohort analysis. International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease 2015;19:979-85. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 2015;19(8):979–85.
    47. Ongarora DS, Strydom N, Wicht K, Njoroge M, Wiesner L, Egan TJ, Wittlin S, Jurva U, Masimirembwa CM, Chibale K. Antimalarial benzoheterocyclic 4-aminoquinolines: Structure-activity relationship, in vivo evaluation, mechanistic and bioactivation studies. Bioorg Med Chem 2015 Sep 1;23(17):5419-32.
    48. Orrell C, Cohen K, Mauff K, Bangsberg DR, Maartens G, Wood R. A randomised controlled trial of real-time electronic adherence monitoring with text message dosing reminders in people starting first-line antiretroviral therapy. JAIDS 2015;70:495-502.
    49. Pepper DJ, Schomaker M, Wilkinson RJ, de Azevedo V, Maartens G. Independent predictors of tuberculosis mortality in a high HIV prevalence setting: a retrospective cohort study. AIDS Res Ther 2015 Oct 6;12:35.
    50. Robins AH, Holland M. The enigmatic illness and death of Constance, wife of Oscar Wilde. Lancet 2015 Jan 3;385(9962):21-2.
    51. Shenje J, Ifeoma Adimora-Nweke F, Ross IL, Ntsekhe M, Wiesner L, Deffur A, McIlleron HM, Pasipanodya J, Gumbo T, Mayosi BM. Poor Penetration of Antibiotics Into Pericardium in Pericardial Tuberculosis. EBioMedicine 2015 Sep 16;2(11):1640-9.
    52. Silal SP, Little F, Barnes KI, White LJ. Hitting a Moving Target: A Model for Malaria Elimination in the Presence of Population Movement. PLoS One 2015 Dec 21;10(12):e0144990.
    53. Silal SP, Little F, Barnes KI, White LJ. Predicting the impact of border control on malaria transmission: a simulated focal screen and treat campaign. Malar J 2015 Jul 12;14:268.
    54. Sinxadi PZ, Leger PD, McIlleron HM, Smith PJ, Dave JA, Levitt NS, Maartens G, Haas DW. Pharmacogenetics of plasma efavirenz exposure in HIV-infected adults and children in South Africa. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2015 Jul;80(1):146-56.
    55. Stringer T, Taylor D, Guzgay H, Shokar A, Au A, Smith PJ, Hendricks DT, Land KM, Egan TJ, Smith GS. Polyamine quinoline rhodium complexes: synthesis and pharmacological evaluation as antiparasitic agents against Plasmodium falciparum and Trichomonas vaginalis. Dalton Trans. 2015 Sep 7;44(33):14906-17.
    56. Swart M, Evans J, Skelton M, Castel S, Wiesner L, Smith PJ, Dandara C. An Expanded Analysis of Pharmacogenetics Determinants of Efavirenz Response that Includes 3'-UTR Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms among Black South African HIV/AIDS Patients. Front Genet. 2016 Jan 7;6:356.
    57. Taleli L, de Kock C, Smith PJ, Pelly SC, Blackie MA, van Otterlo WA. In vitro antiplasmodial activity of triazole-linked chloroquinoline derivatives synthesized from 7-chloro-N-(prop-2-yn-1-yl)quinolin-4-amine. Bioorg Med Chem 2015 Aug 1;23(15):4163-71.
    58. Thee S, Garcia-Prats AJ, Draper HR, McIlleron HM, Wiesner L, Castel S, Schaaf HS, Hesseling AC. Pharmacokinetics and safety of moxifloxacin in children with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. Clin Infect Dis 2015 Feb 15;60(4):549-56. 
    59. Vandekerckhove S, Van Herreweghe S, Willems J, Danneels B, Desmet T, de Kock C, Smith PJ, Chibale K, D'hooghe M. Synthesis of functionalized 3-, 5-, 6- and 8-aminoquinolines via intermediate (3-pyrrolin-1-yl)- and (2-oxopyrrolidin-1-yl)quinolines and evaluation of their antiplasmodial and antifungal activity. Eur J Med Chem 2015 Mar 6;92:91-102.
    60. Wicht KJ, Combrinck JM, Smith PJ Egan TJ4. Bayesian models trained with HTS data for predicting β-haematin inhibition and in vitro antimalarial activity. Bioorg Med Chem 2015 Aug 15;23(16):5210-7.
    61. Wilhelm A, Kendrekar P, Noreljaleel AE, Abay ET, Bonnet SL, Wiesner L, de Kock C, Swart KJ, van der Westhuizen JH. Syntheses and in Vitro Antiplasmodial Activity of Aminoalkylated Chalcones and Analogues. J Nat Prod. 2015 Aug 28;78(8):1848-58.
    62. Wilkinson KA, Walker NF, Meintjes G, Deffur A, Nicol MP, Skolimowska KH, Matthews K, Tadokera R, Seldon R, Maartens G, Rangaka MX, Besra GS, Wilkinson RJ. Cytotoxic mediators in paradoxical HIV-tuberculosis immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome. J Immunol. 2015 Feb 15;194(4):1748-54.
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