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Clinical Pharmacology

Welcome to the Division of Clinical Pharmacology at UCT

The Division is located in the Old Main Building of the Groote Schuur Hospital complex.

The Division strives to promote drug discovery and the rational use of medicines to serve the health needs of people in Africa through teaching, mentorship, research, and clinical consultation.We are a World Health Organization Collaborating Centre for Medicines Information


The division teaches undergraduate medical and physiotherapy students. The focus of our teaching to medical students is rational prescribing for primary care. Most of the teaching is done in smaller groups. Pharmacology teaching is integrated in the 2nd through to 6th years, with specific pharmacology blocks in the 3rd, 4th and 5th years.

Postgraduate Degree Programmes

The Division offers post-graduate training at several scientific levels and one clinical specialist level.  

Honours Bachelor of Medical Science – BMedSc (Hons)

Master of Philosophy (MPhil)

Master of Science in Medicine – MSc (Med)

Doctor of Philosophy – PhD (Med)

Master of Medicine – MMed (Clin Pharm)

Information on course outlines is available here in the Faculty of Health Science postgraduate-programme handbook


The major research thrusts of the division are focused on drugs for malaria, tuberculosis and HIV. The research in these fields is broad and encompasses drug discovery, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics,pharmacometrics, pharmacogenomics, clinical trials, pharmacovigilance, and pharmaco-economic evaluation. Our peer-reviewed publications for the last 5 years are listed below.

Analytical laboratory

The analytical laboratory plays a key research role, evaluating pharmacokinetics of both new chemical entities in small animal models for drug discovery, and in patient samples for drug concentrations. The analytical laboratory has been awarded funding from the AIDS Clinical Trials Group and the International Maternal Pediatric Adolescent AIDS Clinical Trials Group as an International Pharmacology Specialty Laboratory. Director: Dr. Lubbe Wiesner

Pharmacometrics laboratory

Pharmacometrics is the science of quantifying drug and disease information. Mathematical models are used to describe the relationship between pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and individual patient characteristics. Head of pharmacometric laboratory:Dr Paolo Denti.

Antimalarial drugs

Prof Karen Barnes is the founding director of the MRC Collaborating Centre for Optimising Antimalarial Therapy . She leads the Worldwide Antimalarial Resistance Network’s pharmacology group. Her interests are in translational research from drug development, through dose optimisation in vulnerable populations to the comprehensive evaluation of changes in antimalarial treatment policy.

Dr Lubbe Wiesner and Prof Peter Smith head malaria pre-clinical drug development research, in collaboration with Prof Kelly Chibale, using tissue culture and small animal models.

Antiretroviral therapy

Prof Gary Maartens leads research on the effectiveness, adherence,and pharmacoeconomics of antiretroviral therapy in resource-limited settings.Prof Helen McIlleron leads clinical pharmacokinetic research into antiretroviral drug interactions, and dose optimisation in children and pregnancy. Dr Karen Cohen leads the antiretroviral pharmacovigilance group.

Anti-tuberculosis drugs

Prof Helen McIlleron directs a number of anti-tuberculosis clinical pharmacokinetic studiesoptimising dosing in children and pregnant women, exploring PK/PD relationships, and pharmacogenomics. Prof Gary Maartens leads research into the prevention and treatment optimisation of HIV-associated tuberculosis.

Clinical services

The division provides a clinical and laboratory pharmacology service to Groote Schuur hospital as well as secondary and primary centres within our drainage area. Therapeutic drug monitoring with input from clinical pharmacologists is offered for a wide variety of drugs, including antiretroviral and anti-tuberculosis drugs. Clinical consultation is offered to regional hospitals. The division plays an important role in providing policy advice in the rational and cost effective use of drugs for local hospitals, the Western Cape Provincial Coding Committee and the National Essential Medicines List Committee. The Medicines Information Centre  provides a telephonic consultation service for healthcare professionals and runs the National HIV & TB Healthcare Worker Helpline. The division produces the South African Medicines Formulary, currently in its 11th edition.



Abay ET, van der Westuizen JH, Swart KJ, Gibhard L, Lawrence N, Dambuza N, Wilhelm A, Pravin K, Wiesner L. Efficacy and pharmacokinetic evaluation of a novel anti-malarial compound (NP046) in a mouse model. Malar J. 2015 Jan 6;14:8.

Abdissa A,(1,2) Olsen MF (3), Yilma D,(4) Tesfaye M,(5) Girma T,(6) Christiansen M,(7) Hagan CM,(7) Wiesner L,(8) Castel S,(8) Aseffa A,(9) McIlleron H,(8) Petersen C,2() Friis H (3) and Andersen AB (2): Lipid-based nutrient supplements do not affect efavirenz but lower plasma nevirapine concentrations in Ethiopian adult HIV patients: 2015 British HIV Association HIV Medicine (2015), 16, 403– 411

Abrahams Z, Dave JA, Maartens G, Levitt NS. Changes in blood pressure, glucose levels, insulin secretion and anthropometry after long term exposure to antiretroviral therapy in South African women. AIDS Res Ther. 2015 Aug 5;12:24.

Adams M, de Kock C, Smith PJ, Land KM, Liu N, Hopper M, Hsiao A, Burgoyne AR, Stringer T, Meyer M, Wiesner L, Chibale K, Smith GS. Improved antiparasitic activity by incorporation of organosilane entities into half-sandwich ruthenium(II) and rhodium(III) thiosemicarbazone complexes. Dalton Trans. 2015 Feb 7;44(5):2456-68.

Antel K, Singh N, Chisholm B, Heckmann JM: Encephalopathy after persistent vomiting: Three cases of non-alcohol-related Wernicke’s encephalopathy: S Afr Med J 2015;105(6):442-443.

Brink AJ, Cotton M, Feldman C, Finlayson H, Friedman R, Green R, Hendson W, Hockman M, Maartens G, Madhi S, Reubenson G, Silverbauer E, Zietsman I. Updated recommendations for the management of upper respiratory tract infections in South Africa. S Afr Med J. 2015 Apr 6;105(5):344-52.

Buzzatti N, Maisano F, Latib A, Taramasso M, Denti P, La Canna G, Colombo A, Alfieri O. Comparison of outcomes of percutaneous MitraClip versus surgical repair or replacement for degenerative mitral regurgitation in octogenarians. Am J Cardiol. 2015 Feb 15;115(4):487-92.

Calitz C, Gouws C, Viljoen J, Steenekamp J, Wiesner L, Abay E, Hamman J. Herb-Drug Pharmacokinetic Interactions: Transport and Metabolism of Indinavir in the Presence of Selected Herbal Products. Molecules. 2015 Dec 10;20(12):22113-27.

Chigutsa E, Pasipanodya JG, Visser ME, van Helden PD, Smith PJ, Sirgel FA, Gumbo T, McIlleron H. Impact of nonlinear interactions of pharmacokinetics and MICs on sputum bacillary kill rates as a marker of sterilizing effect in tuberculosis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2015 Jan;59(1):38-45.

Chirehwa MT, Rustomjee R, Mthiyane T, Onyebujoh P, Smith P, McIlleron H, Denti P. Model-Based Evaluation of Higher Doses of Rifampin Using a Semimechanistic Model Incorporating Autoinduction and Saturation of Hepatic Extraction. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2015 Nov 9;60(1):487-94.

Chopra R1, de Kock C2, Smith P2, Chibale K3, Singh K4. Ferrocene-pyrimidine conjugates: Synthesis, electrochemistry, physicochemical properties and antiplasmodial activities. Eur J Med Chem. 2015 Jul 15;100:1-9.

Chughlay MF, Njuguna C, Maartens G, Cohen K.: Acute interstitial nephritis caused by lopinavir/ritonavir in a surgeon receiving antiretroviral postexposure prophylaxis. AIDS 2015;29:503-6.


Chughlay MF, Kramer N, Werfalli M, Spearman W, Engel ME, Cohen K. N-acetylcysteine for non-paracetamol drug-induced liver injury: a systematic review protocol. Syst Rev. 2015 Jun 12;4:84.

Combrinck JM1, Fong KY2, Gibhard L3, Smith PJ4, Wright DW5, Egan TJ6. Optimization of a multi-well colorimetric assay to determine haem species in Plasmodium falciparum in the presence of anti-malarials. Malar J. 2015 Jun 24;14:253.

Dambuza NS, Smith P, Evans A, Norman J, Taylor D, Andayi A, Egan T, Chibale K, Wiesner L. Antiplasmodial activity, in vivo pharmacokinetics and anti-malarial efficacy evaluation of hydroxypyridinone hybrids in a mouse model. Malar J. 2015 Dec 16;14(1):505.

Dambuza N, Smith P, Evans A, Taylor D, Chibale K, Wiesner L. A Pharmacokinetic Study of Antimalarial 3,5-Diaryl-2-aminopyridine Derivatives. Malar Res Treat. 2015;2015:405962.

Dave JA, Cohen K, Micklesfield LK, Maartens G, Levitt NS. Antiretroviral Therapy, Especially Efavirenz, Is Associated with Low Bone Mineral Density in HIV-Infected South Africans. PLoS One. 2015 Dec 3;10(12):e0144286.

Dawson R.,* Narunsky K,* Carman D,* Gupte N,† Whitelaw A,‡ Efron A,§ Barnes G.L,§ Hoffman J,§ Chaisson R.E,§ McIlleron H,* Dorman S.E §: Two-stage activity-safety study of daily rifapentine during intensive phase treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis: INT J TUBERC LUNG DIS 19(7):780–786 Q 2015 The Union

Decloedt EH, Rosenkranz B, Maartens G, Joska J. Central nervous system penetration of antiretroviral drugs: pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic and pharmacogenomic considerations. Clin Pharmacokinetics. 2015 Jun;54(6):581-98.

Decloedt EH, van der Walt JS, McIlleron H, Wiesner L, Maartens G. The pharmacokinetics of lopinavir/ritonavir when given with isoniazid in South African HIV-infected individuals. International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease 2015;19:1194-6.

Denoeud-Ndam L, Dicko A, Baudin E, Guindo O, Grandesso F, Sagara I, Lasry E, Palma PP, Parra AM, Stepniewska K, Djimde AA, Barnes KI, Doumbo OK, Etard JF. A multi-center, open-label trial to compare the efficacy and pharmacokinetics of Artemether-Lumefantrine in children with severe acute malnutrition versus children without severe acute malnutrition: study protocol for the MAL-NUT study. BMC Infect Dis. 2015 Jun 12;15:228.

Denti P, Jeremiah K, Chigutsa E, Faurholt-Jepsen D, PrayGod G, Range N, Castel S, Wiesner L, Hagen CM, Christiansen M, Changalucha J, McIlleron H, Friis H, Andersen AB. Pharmacokinetics of Isoniazid, Pyrazinamide, and Ethambutol in Newly Diagnosed Pulmonary TB Patients in Tanzania. PLoS One. 2015 Oct 26;10(10):e0141002.

Denti P, Martinson N, Cohn S, Mashabela F, Hoffmann J, Msandiwa R, Castel S, Wiesner L, Chaisson RE, McIlleron H, Dooley KE; Tshepiso Study Team. Population pharmacokinetics of rifampicin in pregnant women with tuberculosis and HIV co-infection in Soweto, South Africa. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2015 Dec 7. pii: AAC.02051-15.

Dheda K, Barry CE 3rd, Maartens G. Tuberculosis. Lancet. 2015 Sep 13. pii: S0140-6736(15)00151-8.

Dooley KE, Denti P, Martinson N, Cohn S, Mashabela F, Hoffmann J, Haas DW, Hull J, Msandiwa R, Castel S, Wiesner L, Chaisson RE, McIlleron H; TSHEPISO Study Team. Pharmacokinetics of efavirenz and treatment of HIV-1 among pregnant women with and without tuberculosis coinfection. J Infect Dis. 2015 Jan 15;211(2):197-205.

du Plessis LH, Govender K, Denti P, Wiesner L. In vivo efficacy and bioavailability of lumefantrine: Evaluating the application of Pheroid technology. Eur J Pharm Biopharm. 2015 Nov;97(Pt A):68-77.

Gabriels G, Lambert M, Smith P, Wiesner L, Hiss D. Melamine contamination in nutritional supplements--Is it an alarm bell for the general consumer, athletes, and 'Weekend Warriors'? Nutr J. 2015 Jul 17;14:69.

Garcia-Prats AJ, Draper HR, Thee S, Dooley KE, McIlleron HM, Seddon JA, Wiesner L, Castel S, Schaaf HS, Hesseling AC. Pharmacokinetics and Safety of Ofloxacin in Children with Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2015 Oct;59(10):6073-9.

Gonzàlez Cabrera D, Douelle F, Le Manach C, Han Z, Paquet T, Taylor D, Njoroge M, Lawrence N, Wiesner L, Waterson D, Witty MJ, Wittlin S, Street LJ, Chibale K. Structure-Activity Relationship Studies of Orally Active Antimalarial 2,4-Diamino-thienopyrimidines. J Med Chem. 2015 Sep 24;58(18):7572-9.

Govender K, Gibhard L, Du Plessis L, Wiesner L. Development and validation of a LC-MS/MS method for the quantitation of lumefantrine in mouse whole blood and plasma. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2015 Mar 15;985:6-13.

Gumbo T, Pasipanodya JG, Wash P, Burger A, McIlleron H. Reply to "breakpoints and drug exposure are inevitably closely linked". Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2015 Feb;59(2):1385.

Habib Noorbhai (1*), Gabriels Gary (2) and Noorbhai Aslam (3): The Effects of Common Medications in Response to Exercise and Training: Noorbhai et al., Adv Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf 2014, 3:1

Hennig S, Naiker S, Reddy T, Egan D, Kellerman T, Wiesner L, Owen A, McIlleron H, Pym A. Effect of SLCO1B1 Polymorphisms on Rifabutin Pharmacokinetics in African HIV-Infected Patients with Tuberculosis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2015 Oct 19;60(1):617-20.

Hoffmann Christopher J (1), Silvia Cohn (1), Fildah Mashabela (2), Jennifer D Hoffmann (1), Helen McIlleron (3), Paolo Denti (3), David Haas (4), Kelly E Dooley (1), Neil A Martinson (1,2), Richard E Chaisson (1): Treatment failure, drug resistance, and CD4 T-cell count decline among postpartum women on antiretroviral therapy in South Africa: JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes Publish Ahead of Print

Kaur H1, Machado M2, de Kock C3, Smith P3, Chibale K4, Prudêncio M2, Singh K5. Primaquine-pyrimidine hybrids: synthesis and dual-stage antiplasmodial activity. Eur J Med Chem. 2015 Aug 28;101:266-73.

Kaur H, Balzarini J, de Kock C, Smith PJ, Chibale K, Singh K. Synthesis, antiplasmodial activity and mechanistic studies of pyrimidine-5-carbonitrile and quinoline hybrids. Eur J Med Chem. 2015 Aug 28;101:52-62.

Kerpel-Fronius S, Rosenkranz B, Allen E, Bass R, Mainard JD, Dodoo A, Dubois DJ, Hela M, Kern S, Massud J, Silva H, Whitty J. Education and training for medicines development, regulation, and clinical research in emerging countries. Front Pharmacol. 2015 Apr 14;6:80.

Kwara A, Enimil A, Gillani FS, Yang H, Sarfo AM, Dompreh A, Ortsin A, Osei-Tutu L, Kwarteng Owusu S, Wiesner L, Norman J, Kurpewski J, Peloquin CA, Ansong D, Antwi S. Pharmacokinetics of First-Line Antituberculosis Drugs Using WHO Revised Dosage in Children With Tuberculosis With and Without HIV Coinfection. J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc. 2015 May 26.

Lai RP, Meintjes G, Wilkinson KA, Graham CM, Marais S, Van der Plas H, Deffur A, Schutz C, Bloom C, Munagala I, Anguiano E, Goliath R, Maartens G, Banchereau J, Chaussabel D, O'Garra A, Wilkinson RJ. HIV-tuberculosis-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome is characterized by Toll-like receptor and inflammasome signalling. Nat Commun. 2015 Sep 24;6:8451.

Luetkemeyer AF, Rosenkranz SL, Lu D, Grinsztejn B, Sanchez J, Ssemmanda M, Sanne I, McIlleron H, Havlir DV, Haas DW; Adult AIDS Clinical Trials Group A5221 and A5243 Study Teams. Combined effect of CYP2B6 and NAT2 genotype on plasma efavirenz exposure during rifampin-based antituberculosis therapy in the STRIDE study. Clin Infect Dis. 2015 Jun 15;60(12):1860-3.

Maartens G, Meintjes G. Lower-dose efavirenz: what is needed before implementation? Lancet Infect Dis. 2015 Jul;15(7):749-51.

Maartens G, Benson CA.  Linezolid for Treating Tuberculosis: A Delicate Balancing Act. EBioMedicine. 2015 Oct 21;2(11):1568-9.

Maartens Gary, *Graeme Meintjes: The downside of success: confirmation of HIV infection in early treated children: S1473-3099(15)00086-9

Maneli M. H,(1) Wiesner L,(2) Tinguely C,(3) Davids L.M,(4) Spengane Z,(1) Smith P,(2) van Wyk J.C,(1) Jardine A(5) and Khumalo N.P (1): Combinations of potent topical steroids, mercury and hydroquinone are common in internationally manufactured skin-lightening products: a spectroscopic study: CED Clinical and Experimental Dermatology: doi:10.1111/ced.12720

McIlleron H, Abdel-Rahman S, Dave JA, Blockman M, Owen A. Special populations and pharmacogenetic issues in tuberculosis drug development and clinical research. J Infect Dis. 2015 Jun 15;211 Suppl 3:S115-25.

Meintjes G, Dunn L, Coetsee M, Hislop M, Leisegang R, Regensberg L, Maartens G. Third-line antiretroviral therapy in Africa: effectiveness in a Southern African retrospective cohort study. AIDS Res Ther. 2015 Dec 1;12:39.

Melariri P, Kalombo L, Nkuna P, Dube A, Hayeshi R, Ogutu B, Gibhard L, deKock C, Smith P, Wiesner L, Swai H. Oral lipid-based nanoformulation of tafenoquine enhanced bioavailability and blood stage antimalarial efficacy and led to a reduction in human red blood cell loss in mice. Int J Nanomedicine. 2015 Feb 20;10:1493-503.

Mhandire D, Lacerda M, Castel S, Mhandire K, Zhou D, Swart M, Shamu T, Smith P, Musingwini T, Wiesner L, Stray-Pedersen B, Dandara C. Effects of CYP2B6 and CYP1A2 Genetic Variation on Nevirapine Plasma Concentration and Pharmacodynamics as Measured by CD4 Cell Count in Zimbabwean HIV-Infected Patients. OMICS. 2015 Sep;19(9):553-62.

Moultrie H, McIlleron H, Sawry S, Kellermann T, Wiesner L, Kindra G, Gous H, Van Rie A. Pharmacokinetics and safety of rifabutin in young HIV-infected children receiving rifabutin and lopinavir/ritonavir. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2015 Feb;70(2):543-9.

Mouton JP, Mehta U, Parrish AG, Wilson DP, Stewart A, Njuguna CW, Kramer N, Maartens G, Blockman M, Cohen K. Mortality from adverse drug reactions in adult medical inpatients at four hospitals in South Africa: a cross-sectional survey. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2015 Oct;80(4):818-26.

Nachman S, Ahmed A, Amanullah F, Becerra MC, Botgros R, Brigden G, Browning R, Gardiner E, Hafner R, Hesseling A, How C, Jean-Philippe P, Lessem E, Makhene M, Mbelle N, Marais B, McIlleron H, McNeeley DF, Mendel C, Murray S, Navarro E, Anyalechi EG, Porcalla AR, Powell C, Powell M, Rigaud M, Rouzier V, Samson P, Schaaf HS, Shah S, Starke J, Swaminathan S, Wobudeya E, Worrell C. Towards early inclusion of children in tuberculosis drugs trials: a consensus statement. Lancet Infect Dis. 2015 Jun;15(6):711-20.

Ndjeka N, Conradie F, Schnippel K, Hughes J, Bantubani N, Ferreira H, Maartens G, Mametja D, Meintjes G, Padanilam X, Variava E, Pym A, Pillay Y. Treatment of drug-resistant tuberculosis with bedaquiline in a high HIV prevalence setting: an interim cohort analysis. International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease 2015;19:979-85. INT J TUBERC LUNG DIS 19(8):979–985 Q 2015

Njuguna Christine (1), Stewart Annemie (1), Mouton Johannes P. (1), Blockman Marc (1), Maartens Gary (1), Swart Annoesjka (1), Chisholm Briony (1), Jones Jackie (1), Dheda Mukesh (2,3),  Igumbor Ehimario U. (4), Cohen Karen: Adverse Drug Reactions Reported to a National HIV & Tuberculosis Health Care Worker Hotline in South Africa: Description and Prospective Follow-Up of Reports: Drug Saf DOI 10.1007/s40264-015-0359-8

Ongarora DS, Strydom N, Wicht K, Njoroge M, Wiesner L, Egan TJ, Wittlin S, Jurva U, Masimirembwa CM, Chibale K. Antimalarial benzoheterocyclic 4-aminoquinolines: Structure-activity relationship, in vivo evaluation, mechanistic and bioactivation studies. Bioorg Med Chem. 2015 Sep 1;23(17):5419-32.

Orrell C, Cohen K, Mauff K, Bangsberg DR, Maartens G, Wood R. A randomised controlled trial of real-time electronic adherence monitoring with text message dosing reminders in people starting first-line antiretroviral therapy. Journal of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndromes 2015;70:495-502.

Pandie Mishal (1), Wiesner Lubbe (1), McIlleron Helen (1), Hughes Jennifer (2), Siwendu Sweetness (3), Conradie  Francesca (4,5), Variava Ebrahim (4) and Maartens Gary (1)*: Drug–drug interactions between bedaquiline and the antiretrovirals lopinavir/ritonavir and nevirapine in HIV-infected patients with drug-resistant TB: J Antimicrob Chemother doi:10.1093/jac/dkv447

Pierre Mugabo Pierre (1*), Abaniwonda Mercy I (1), Theron Danie (2), Van Zyl Leonie (2), Hassan Shafick M (3), Stander Marietjie (4), McIlleron Helen (5) and Madsen Richard (6) Determination of Kanamycin Plasma Levels Using LC-MS and Its Pharmacokinetics in Patients with Multidrug- Resistant Tuberculosis with and without HIV-Infection: Mugabo et al. Biochem Pharmacol (Los Angel) 2015, 4:1

Pepper DJ, Schomaker M, Wilkinson RJ, de Azevedo V, Maartens G. Independent predictors of tuberculosis mortality in a high HIV prevalence setting: a retrospective cohort study. AIDS Res Ther. 2015 Oct 6;12:35.

Robins AH, Holland M. The enigmatic illness and death of Constance, wife of Oscar Wilde. Lancet. 2015 Jan 3;385(9962):21-2.

Rosenkranz B, Reid M and Allen E, 2015, Medicines development and regulation in Africa. Journal of Medicines Devel-opment Sciences, vol.1(2): 33–36.

Savic RM, Ruslami R, Hibma JE, Hesseling A, Ramachandran G, Ganiem AR, Swaminathan S, McIlleron H, Gupta A, Thakur K, van Crevel R, Aarnoutse R, Dooley KE: Pediatric tuberculous meningitis: model-based approach to determining optimal doses of the anti-tuberculosis drugs rifampin and levofloxacin for children: Savic_et_al-2015:

Shenje J, Ifeoma Adimora-Nweke F, Ross IL, Ntsekhe M, Wiesner L, Deffur A, McIlleron HM, Pasipanodya J, Gumbo T, Mayosi BM. Poor Penetration of Antibiotics Into Pericardium in Pericardial Tuberculosis. EBioMedicine. 2015 Sep 16;2(11):1640-9.

Silal SP, Little F, Barnes KI, White LJ. Hitting a Moving Target: A Model for Malaria Elimination in the Presence of Population Movement. PLoS One. 2015 Dec 21;10(12):e0144990.

Silal Sheetal Prakash (1), Francesca Little(1), Karen I. Barnes(2) and Lisa Jane White(3,4) Sensitivity to model structure: a comparison of compartmental models in epidemiology: Health Systems (2015), 1–14 © 2015 Operational Research Society Ltd. All rights reserved 2047-6965/15

Silal SP, Little F, Barnes KI, White LJ. Predicting the impact of border control on malaria transmission: a simulated focal screen and treat campaign. Malar J. 2015 Jul 12;14:268.

Sinxadi PZ, Leger PD, McIlleron HM, Smith PJ, Dave JA, Levitt NS, Maartens G, Haas DW. Pharmacogenetics of plasma efavirenz exposure in HIV-infected adults and children in South Africa. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2015 Jul;80(1):146-56.

Stringer T1, Taylor D, Guzgay H, Shokar A, Au A, Smith PJ, Hendricks DT, Land KM, Egan TJ, Smith GS.  Polyamine quinoline rhodium complexes: synthesis and pharmacological evaluation as antiparasitic agents against Plasmodium falciparum and Trichomonas vaginalis. Dalton Trans. 2015 Sep 7;44(33):14906-17.

Stringer Tameryn a, Hajira Guzgay b, Jill M. Combrinck a, c, Melissa Hopper d, Denver T. Hendricks b, Peter J. Smith c, Kirkwood M. Land d, Timothy J. Egan a, Gregory S. Smith a, *: Synthesis, characterization and pharmacological evaluation of ferrocenyl azines and their rhodium(I) complexes: Journal of Organometallic Chemistry 788 (2015) 1e8

Swart M, Evans J, Skelton M, Castel S, Wiesner L, Smith PJ, Dandara C. An Expanded Analysis of Pharmacogenetics Determinants of Efavirenz Response that Includes 3'-UTR Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms among Black South African HIV/AIDS Patients. Front Genet. 2016 Jan 7;6:356.

Taleli L1, de Kock C2, Smith PJ2, Pelly SC1, Blackie MA1, van Otterlo WA3. In vitro antiplasmodial activity of triazole-linked chloroquinoline derivatives synthesized from 7-chloro-N-(prop-2-yn-1-yl)quinolin-4-amine. Bioorg Med Chem. 2015 Aug 1;23(15):4163-71.

Taramasso M, Denti P, Latib A, Guidotti A, Buzzatti N, Pozzoli A, Di Giannuario G, La Canna G, Colombo A, Alfieri O, Maisano F. Clinical and anatomical predictors of MitraClip therapy failure for functional mitral regurgitation: single central clip strategy in asymmetric tethering. Int J Cardiol. 2015;186:286-8.

Taramasso M, Maisano F, Denti P, Guidotti A, Sticchi A, Pozzoli A, Buzzatti N, De Bonis M, La Canna G, Alfieri O. Surgical treatment of paravalvular leak: Long-term results in a single-center experience (up to 14 years). J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2015 May;149(5):1270-5.

Taramasso M, Guidotti A, Cesarovic N, Denti P, Addis A, Candreva A, Nietlispach F, Fleischmann T, Emmert MY, Maisano F. Transcatheter direct mitral annuloplasty with Cardioband: feasibility and efficacy trial in an acute preclinical model. EuroIntervention. 2015 Nov 18;11(7). pii: EIJ-D-15-00021.

Thee S, Garcia-Prats AJ, Draper HR, McIlleron HM, Wiesner L, Castel S, Schaaf HS, Hesseling AC. Pharmacokinetics and safety of moxifloxacin in children with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. Clin Infect Dis. 2015 Feb 15;60(4):549-56.


Vandekerckhove S1, Van Herreweghe S1, Willems J1, Danneels B2, Desmet T2, de Kock C3, Smith PJ3, Chibale K4, D'hooghe M5. Synthesis of functionalized 3-, 5-, 6- and 8-aminoquinolines via intermediate (3-pyrrolin-1-yl)- and (2-oxopyrrolidin-1-yl)quinolines and evaluation of their antiplasmodial and antifungal activity. Eur J Med Chem. 2015 Mar 6;92:91-102.

van der Westhuizen FH, Sinxadi PZ, Dandara C, Smuts I, Riordan G, Meldau S, Malik AN, Sweeney MG, Tsai Y, Towers GW, Louw R, Gorman GS, Payne BA, Soodyall H, Pepper MS, Elson JL. Understanding the Implications of Mitochondrial DNA Variation in the Health of Black Southern African Populations: The 2014 Workshop. Hum Mutat. 2015 May;36(5):569-71.

Veale Clinton G. L. a,⇑, edkins Adrienne L. b, de la Mare Jo-Anne b, de Kock Carmen c, Smith Peter J. c, Khanye Setshaba D. d. Facile synthesis and biological evaluation of assorted indolyl-3- amides and esters from a single, stable carbonyl nitrile intermediate. Tetrahedron Letters 56 (2015) 1860–1864

Veronica Mulenga *, Musiime Victor *, Kekitiinwa Adeodata *, Cook Adrian D *, Abongomera George, Kenny Julia, Chabala Chisala, Mirembe Grace, Asiimwe Alice, Owen-Powell Ellen, Burger David, McIlleron Helen, Klein Nigel, Chintu Chifumbe, Thomason Margaret J, Kityo Cissy, Walker A Sarah †, Gibb Diana M †, on behalf of the CHAPAS-3 trial team‡: Abacavir, zidovudine, or stavudine as paediatric tablets for African HIV-infected children (CHAPAS-3): an open-label, parallel-group, randomised controlled trial: Published online October 6, 2015

Wallis L, Malan M, Gouws C, Steyn D, Ellis S, Abay E, Wiesner L, Otto DP, Hamman J. Evaluation of Isolated Fractions of Aloe vera Gel Materials on Indinavir Pharmacokinetics: InVitro and In Vivo Studie. Curr Drug Deliv. 2015 Nov 16.

Wicht KJ1, Combrinck JM2, Smith PJ3, Egan TJ4. Bayesian models trained with HTS data for predicting β-haematin inhibition and in vitro antimalarial activity. Bioorg Med Chem. 2015 Aug 15;23(16):5210-7.

Wilhelm A, Kendrekar P, Noreljaleel AE, Abay ET, Bonnet SL, Wiesner L, de Kock C, Swart KJ, van der Westhuizen JH. Syntheses and in Vitro Antiplasmodial Activity of Aminoalkylated Chalcones and Analogues. J Nat Prod. 2015 Aug 28;78(8):1848-58.

Wilkinson KA, Walker NF, Meintjes G, Deffur A, Nicol MP, Skolimowska KH, Matthews K, Tadokera R, Seldon R, Maartens G, Rangaka MX, Besra GS, Wilkinson RJ. Cytotoxic mediators in paradoxical HIV-tuberculosis immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome. J Immunol. 2015 Feb 15;194(4):1748-54.

WorldWide Antimalarial Resistance Network (WWARN) AS-AQ Study Group, Adjuik MA, Allan R, Anvikar AR, Ashley EA, Ba MS, Barennes H, Barnes KI, Bassat Q, Baudin E, Björkman A, Bompart F, Bonnet M, Borrmann S, Brasseur P, Bukirwa H, Checchi F, Cot M, Dahal P, D'Alessandro U, Deloron P, Desai M, Diap G, Djimde AA, Dorsey G, Doumbo OK, Espié E, Etard JF, Fanello CI, Faucher JF, Faye B, Flegg JA, Gaye O, Gething PW, González R, Grandesso F, Guerin PJ, Guthmann JP, Hamour S, Hasugian AR, Hay SI, Humphreys GS, Jullien V, Juma E, Kamya MR, Karema C, Kiechel JR, Kremsner PG, Krishna S, Lameyre V, Ibrahim LM, Lee SJ, Lell B, Mårtensson A, Massougbodji A, Menan H, Ménard D, Menéndez C, Meremikwu M, Moreira C, Nabasumba C, Nambozi M, Ndiaye JL, Nikiema F, Nsanzabana C, Ntoumi F, Ogutu BR, Olliaro P, Osorio L, Ouédraogo JB, Penali LK, Pene M, Pinoges L, Piola P, Price RN, Roper C, Rosenthal PJ, Rwagacondo CE, Same-Ekobo A, Schramm B, Seck A, Sharma B, Sibley CH, Sinou V, Sirima SB, Smith JJ, Smithuis F, Somé FA, Sow D, Staedke SG, Stepniewska K, Swarthout TD, Sylla K, Talisuna AO, Tarning J, Taylor WR, Temu EA, Thwing JI, Tjitra E, Tine RC, Tinto H, Vaillant MT, Valecha N, Van den Broek I, White NJ, Yeka A, Zongo I. The effect of dosing strategies on the therapeutic efficacy of artesunate-amodiaquine for uncomplicated malaria: a meta-analysis of individual patient data. BMC Med. 2015 Mar 31;13:66.

WorldWide Antimalarial Resistance Network (WWARN) Lumefantrine PK/PD Study Group. Artemether-lumefantrine treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria: a systematic review and meta-analysis of day 7 lumefantrine concentrations and therapeutic response using individual patient data. BMC Med. 2015 Sep 18;13:227.

WWARN Artemisinin based Combination Therapy (ACT) Africa Baseline Study Group*: Clinical determinants of early parasitological response to ACTs in African patients with uncomplicated falciparum malaria: a literature review and meta-analysis of individual patient data: WWARN Artemisinin based Combination Therapy (ACT) Africa Baseline Study Group BMC Medicine (2015) 13:212

Worldwide Antimalarial Resistance Network (WWARN) AL Dose Impact Study Group*: The eff ect of dose on the antimalarial effi cacy of artemether– lumefantrine: a systematic review and pooled analysis of individual patient data: Lancet Infect Dis 2015; 15: 692–702


Abay ET, van der Westhuizen JH, Swart KJ, Gibhard L, Tukulula M, Chibale K, Wiesner L. The development and validation of an LC-MS/MS method for the determination of a new anti-malarial compound (TK900D) in human whole blood and its application to pharmacokinetic studies in mice. Malar J. 2014;13:42.

Abdissa A, Wiesner L, McIlleron H, Friis H, Andersen AB, Kaestel P. Evaluation of an immunoassay for determination of plasma efavirenz concentrations in resource-limited settings. J Int AIDS Soc. 2014;17:18979.

Abrahams Z, Dave JA, Maartens G, Lesosky M, Levitt NS. The development of simple anthropometric measures to diagnose antiretroviral therapy-associated lipodystrophy in resource limited settings. AIDS Research and Therapy 2014;11:26.

Allen EN, Gomes M, Yevoo L, Egesah O, Clerk C, Byamugisha J, Mbonye A, Were A, Mehta U, Atuyambe LM. Influences on participant reporting in the World Health Organisation drugs exposure pregnancy registry; a qualitative study. BMC Health Serv Res 2014 Oct 31;14(1):525.

Amlabu V, Mulligan C, Jele N, Evans A, Gray D, Zar HJ, McIlleron H, Smith P. Isoniazid/acetylisoniazid urine concentrations: markers of adherence to isoniazid preventive therapy in children. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2014 May;18(5):528-30.

Bekker L.G. Venter F, Cohen K, Goemare E, Van Cutsem G, Boulle A, Wood R. Provision of antiretroviral therapy in South Africa: the nuts and bolts. Antivir Ther. 2014;19 Suppl 3:105-16

Brigden G, Nyang’wa BT, du Cros P, Varaine F, Hughes J, Rich M, Horsburgh CR Jr, Mitnick CD, Nuermberger E, McIlleron H, Phillips PP, Balasegaram M. Principles for designing future regimens for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. Bull World Health Organ. 2014 Jan 1;92(1):68-74.

Chukwujekwu JC, Amoo SO, de Kock CA, Smith PJ, van Staden J. Antiplasmodial, acetylcholinesterase and alpha-glucosidase inhibitory and cytotoxicity properties of Buddleja saligna. South African Journal of Botany 2014; 94: 6–8

Chukwujekwu JC, Ndhlala AR, de Kock CA, Smith PJ, Van Staden J.  Antiplasmodial, HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitory and cytotoxicity properties of Centratherum punctatum Cass. and its fraction. South African Journal of Botany 2014; 90: 17–19

Churchyard GJ, Chaisson RE, Maartens G, Getahun H. Tuberculosis preventive therapy: An underutilised strategy to reduce individual risk of TB and contribute to TB control. South African Medical Journal 2014;104(5):339-343.

Cloete TT, de Kock C, Smith PJ, N’da DD. Synthesis, in vitro antiplasmodial activity and cytotoxicity of a series of artemisininetriazine hybrids and hybrid-dimers. European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 76 (2014) 470e481

Conradie F, Meintjes G, Hughes J, Maartens G, Ferreira H, Siwendu S, Master I, Ndjeka N. Clinical Access to Bedaquiline Programme for the treatment of drug-resistant tuberculosis. South African Medical Journal 2014;104(3):164-166.

Court R, Leisegang R, Stewart A, Sunpath H, Murphy R, Winternheimer P, Ally M, Maartens G. Short term adherence tool predicts failure on second line protease inhibitor-based antiretroviral therapy. BMC Infectious Diseases 2014 Dec 4;14(1):664.

De Waal R, Kroon SM, Holgate SL, Horn AR, Tooke LJ, Norman J, Smith P, Blockman M, Cotton MF, McIlleron HM, Cohen K. Nevirapine concentrations in preterm and low birth weight HIV-exposed infants: implications for dosing recommendations. Pediatric Infectious Diseases Journal 2014 33(12): 1231-1233

Denti P, Sharp SK, Kröger WL, Schwager SL, Mahajan A, Njoroge M, Gibhard L, Smit I, Chibale K, Wiesner L, Sturrock ED, Davies NH. Pharmacokinetic evaluation of lisinopril-tryptophan, a novel C-domain ACE inhibitor. Eur J Pharm Sci. 2014 Jun 2;56:113-9.

Drain PK, Mayeza L, Bartman P, Hurtado R, Moodley P, Varghese S, Maartens G, Alvarez GG, Wilson D. Diagnostic accuracy and clinical role of rapid C-reactive protein testing in HIV-infected tuberculosis suspects in South Africa. International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease 2014;18:21-6.

Du Plessis LH, Helena C, van Huysteen E, Wiesner L, Kotzé AF. Formulation and evaluation of Pheroid vesicles containing mefloquine for the treatment of malaria. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2014;66(1):14-22.

Gumbo T, Chigutsa E, Pasipanodya J, Visser M, van Helden PD, Sirgel FA, McIlleron H. The pyrazinamide susceptibility breakpoint above which combination therapy fails. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2014; 69(9):2420-5.

Jeremiah K, Denti P, Chigutsa E, Faurholt-Jepsen D, PrayGod G, Range N, Castel S, Wiesner L, Hagen CM, Christiansen M, Changalucha J, McIlleron H, Friis H, Andersen AB. Nutritional supplementation increases rifampin exposure among tuberculosis patients coinfected with HIV. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2014;58(6):3468-74.

Jindani A, Harrison TS, Nunn AJ, Phillips PP, Churchyard GJ, Charalambous S, Hatherill M, Geldenhuys H, McIlleron HM, Zvada SP, Mungofa S, Shah NA, Zizhou S, Magweta L, Shepherd J, Nyirenda S, van Dijk JH, Clouting HE, Coleman D, Bateson AL, McHugh TD, Butcher PD, Mitchison DA; RIFAQUIN Trial Team. High-dose rifapentine with moxifloxacin for pulmonary tuberculosis. N Engl J Med. 2014;371(17):1599-608.

Johnston V, Cohen K, Wiesner L, Morris L, Ledwaba J, Fielding K, Charalambous S, Churchyard G, Phillips A, Grant AD.. Viral suppression following switch to second-line antiretroviral therapy: the association with NRTI resistance and ‘sub-therapeutic’ drug concentrations prior to switch. J Infect Dis 2014;209 (5):711-720

Le Manach C, Gonzalez Cabrera D, Douelle F, Nchinda A, Younis Y, Taylor D, Wiesner L, White K, Ryan E, March C, Duffy S, Avery V, Waterson D, Witty M, Wittlin S, Charman S, Street L, Chibale K. Medicinal Chemistry Optimization of Antiplasmodial Imidazopyridazine Hits from High Throughput Screening of a SoftFocus Kinase Library: Part 1. J Med Chem. 2014 Mar 27;57(6):2789-98.

Li Y, de Kock C, Smith PJ, Chibale K, Smith GS. Synthesis and Evaluation of a Carbosilane Congener of Ferroquine and Its Corresponding Half-Sandwich Ruthenium and Rhodium Complexes for Antiplasmodial and β‑Hematin Inhibition Activity.  Organometallics 2014, 33, 4345−4348

Maartens G, Celum C, Lewin SR. HIV infection: epidemiology, pathogenesis, treatment, and prevention. Lancet 2014;384:258-71

Mehta U, Dheda M, Steel G, Blockman M, Ntilivamunda A, Maartens G, Pillay Y, Cohen K. Strengthening pharmacovigilance in South Africa. S Afr Med J. 2014 ; 104 (2) 104-106.

Meintjes G, Maartens G. Dosing of raltegravir when given with rifampicin. Lancet Infectious Diseases 2014;14(6):442-3.

Moholisa RR, Schomaker M, Kuhn L, Meredith S, Wiesner L, Coovadia A, Strehlau R, Martens L, Abrams EJ, Maartens G, McIlleron H. Plasma lopinavir concentrations predict virological failure in a cohort of South African children initiating a protease-inhibitor-based regimen. Antivir Ther. 2014 ;19(4):399-406.

Naiker S, Connolly C, Wiesner L, Kellerman T, Reddy T, Harries A, McIlleron H, Lienhardt C, Pym A. Randomized pharmacokinetic evaluation of different rifabutin doses in African HIV- infected tuberculosis patients on lopinavir/ritonavir-based antiretroviral therapy. BMC Pharmacol Toxicol. 2014 Nov 19;15:61.

N’Da DD, Breytenbach JC, Smith PJ, Lategan C. Synthesis, in vitro antiplasmodial and antiproliferative activities of a series of quinoline–ferrocene hybrids  Med Chem Res 2014; 23:1214-1224

Nkoana W, Nyoni D, Chellan P, Stringer T, Taylor D, Smith PJ, Hutton AT, Smith GS. Heterometallic half-sandwich complexes containing a ferrocenyl motif: Synthesis, molecular structure, electrochemistry and antiplasmodial evaluation. Journal of Organometallic Chemistry 2014; 752:67–75

Rangaka MX, Wilkinson RJ, Boulle A, Glynn JR, Fielding K, van Cutsem G, Wilkinson KA, Goliath R, Mathee S, Goemaere E, Maartens G. Isoniazid plus antiretroviral therapy to prevent tuberculosis: a randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 2014;384(9944):682-90

Shiau S, Kuhn L, Strehlau R, Martens L, McIlleron H, Meredith S, Wiesner L, Coovadia A, Abrams EJ, Arpadi SM. Sex differences in responses to antiretroviral treatment in South African HIV-infected children on ritonavir-boosted lopinavir- and nevirapine-based treatment. BMC Pediatr. 2014 Feb 12;14:39.

Tadokera R, Meintjes G, Wilkinson KA, Skolimowska KH, Walker N, Friedland JS, Maartens G, Elkington PT, Wilkinson RJ. Matrix metalloproteinase-7 and tissue damage in paradoxical HIV-tuberculosis associated Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome. European Journal of Immunology 2014;44(1):127-136.

Thee S, Garcia-Prats AJ, McIlleron HM, Wiesner L, Castel S, Norman J, Draper HR, van der Merwe PL, Hesseling AC, Schaaf HS. Pharmacokinetics of ofloxacin and levofloxacin for prevention and treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in children. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2014 May;58(5):2948-51.

Vandekerckhove S, Desmet T, Tran HG, de Kock C, Smith PJ, Chibale K, D’hooghe M. Synthesis of halogenated 4-quinolones and evaluation of their antiplasmodial activity. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2014 Feb 15;24(4):1214-7

Visser Kift E, Maartens G, Bamford C. Systematic review of the evidence for rational dosing of colistin. South African Medical Journal 2014;104(3):183-186

Wicht KJ, Combrinck JM, Smith PJ, Egan TJ. Bayesian models trained with HTS data for predicting β-haematin inhibition and in vitro antimalarial activity. Bioorg Med Chem. 2014 Dec 20. pii: S0968-0896(14)00868-2.

Wiseman R, Cohen K, Gray A, Jamaloodien, K, Kredo T, Miot J, Parrish A, Taylor B, Blockman M. AGREE to disagree – critical appraisal and the publication of practice guidelines S Afr Med J 2014; 104 (5): 345-346.

Zvada SP, Denti P, Donald PR, Schaaf HS, Thee S, Seddon JA, Seifart HI, Smith PJ, McIlleron HM, Simonsson US. Population pharmacokinetics of rifampicin, pyrazinamide and isoniazid in children with tuberculosis: in silico evaluation of currently recommended doses. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2014;69(5):1339-49.

Zvada SP, Denti P, Sirgel FA, Chigutsa E, Hatherill M, Charalambous S, Mungofa S, Wiesner L, Simonsson US, Jindani A, Harrison T, McIlleron HM. Moxifloxacin population pharmacokinetics and model-based comparison of efficacy between moxifloxacin and ofloxacin in African patients. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2014;58(1):503-10.


Allen EN, Chandler CI, Mandimika N, Pace C, Mehta U, Barnes KI. Evaluating harm associated with anti-malarial drugs: a survey of methods used by clinical researchers to elicit, assess and record participant-reported adverse events and related data. Malar J. 2013 Sep 16; 12(1):325.

Allen EN, Mushi AK, Massawe IS, Vestergaard LS, Lemnge M, Staedke SG, Mehta U, Barnes KI, Chandler CI. How experiences become data: the process of eliciting adverse event, medical history and concomitant medication reports in antimalarial and antiretroviral interaction trials. BMC Med Res Methodol. 2013 Nov 14;13(1):140

Chigutsa E, Patel K, Denti P, Visser M, Maartens G, Kirkpatrick C, McIlleron H, Karlsson M. A time to event pharmacodynamic model describing treatment response in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis using days to positivity in automated liquid mycobacterial culture. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 2013;57(2):789-95.

De Waal R, Cohen K, Maartens G. Systematic review of antiretroviral-associated lipodystrophy: lipoatrophy, but not central fat gain, is an antiretroviral adverse drug reaction. PLoS One 2013;8(5): e63623.

Decloedt E, Maartens G. Neuronal toxicity of efavirenz: a systematic review. Expert Opinion on Drug Safety 2013; 12:841-6.

Decloedt EH, Mwansa-Kambafwile J, van der Walt J-S, McIlleron HM, Denti P, Smith P, Wiesner L, Rangaka R, Wilkinson RJ, Maartens G. The pharmacokinetics of nevirapine when given with isoniazid in South African HIV-infected individuals. International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease 2013;17(3):333-5.

Duwell MM, Knowlton AR, Nachega JB, Efron A, Goliath R, Morroni C, Maartens G,Chaisson RE. Patient-nominated, community-based HIV treatment supporters: Patient perspectives, feasibility, challenges and factors for success in HIV-infected South African adults. AIDS Patient Care and STDs2013; 27(2):96-102.

Gabriels G, Lambert M. Nutritional Supplement Products: Does the label information influence purchasing decisions for the physically active. Nutrition Journal 2013, 12:133 

Goedecke JH, Micklesfield LK, Levitt NS, Lambert EV, West S, Maartens G, Dave JA. Effect of different antiretroviral drug regimens on body fat distribution of HIV-infected South African women. AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses 2013;29:557-63

Leisegang R, Maartens G, Hislop M, Sargent J, Darkoh E, Cleary S. Costs and outcomes of providing antiretroviral therapy to public patients in private practices versus public clinics in South Africa. PLoS ONE 2013; 8(2): e53570.

Lombard MC, David D N’Da, Christophe Tran Van Ba, Sharon Wein, Jennifer Norman, Lubbe Wiesner and Henri Vial, Potent in vivo anti-malarial activity and representative snapshot pharmacokinetic evaluation of artemisinin-quinoline hybrids, Malaria Journal, 2013, 12:7

Maartens G. ART and tuberculosis: the final nail in nevirapine’s coffin? Lancet Infectious Diseases 2013; 13(4):278-9.

Matshawandile T, Njoroge M, Abay E, Mugumbate G, Wiesner L, Taylor D, Gibhard L, Norman J, Swart K, Gut J, Rosenthal P,Barteau S, Streckfuss J, Kameni-Tcheudji J, Chibale K. Synthesis, in vitro and in vivo pharmacological evaluation of new 4-aminoquinoline-based compounds, CS Medicinal Chemistry Letters (2013) Manuscript ID: ml-2013-00311r.R1.

McIlleron HM, Schomaker M, Ren Y, Sinxadi P, Nuttall JJ, Gous H, Moultrie H, Eley B, Merry C, Smith P, Haas DW, Maartens G. Effects of rifampin-based antituberculosis therapy on plasma efavirenz concentrations in children vary by CYP2B6 genotype. AIDS 2013; 27:1933-40.

Morris N, Frean J, Baker L, Ukpe IS, Barnes KI, Kruger P, Mabuza A, Raswiswi E, Maharaj R, Blumberg L, Moonasar D. Re-defining the extent of malaria transmission in South Africa: Implications for chemoprophylaxis. S Afr Med J. 2013 Oct 2;103(11):861-4.

Silal SP, Barnes KI, Kok G, Mabuza A, Little F. Exploring the seasonality of reported treated malaria cases in Mpumalanga, South Africa. PLoS One. 2013 Oct 29;8(10):e76640. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0076640.

Sinxadi PZ, Dave J, Samuels DC, Heckmann J, Maartens G, Levitt N, Wester CW, Haas DW, Hulgan T. Mitochondrial genomics and antiretroviral therapy-associated metabolic complications in HIV-infected black South Africans: a pilot study. AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses 2013; 29(7):1031-9.

Tadokera R, Wilkinson K, Meintjes G, Skolimowska K, Matthews K, Seldon R, Rangaka M, Maartens G, Wilkinson R. The role of interleukin-10 family of cytokines in HIV-tuberculosis associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome. Journal of Infectious Diseases 2013; 207:1148-56.

WorldWide Antimalarial Resistance Network (WWARN) DP Study Group. The Effect of Dosing Regimens on the Antimalarial Efficacy of Dihydroartemisinin-Piperaquine: A Pooled Analysis of Individual Patient Data. PLoS Med 2013;10(12):e1001564

Upke IS, Moonasar D, Raman J, Barnes KI, Baker L, Blumberg L. Case management of malaria: Treatment and chemoprophylaxis. S Afr Med J. 2013 Aug 29; 103(10):793-8.

Van der Plas H, Meintjes G, Schutz C, Goliath R, Myer L, Baatjie D, Wilkinson RJ, Maartens G, Mendelson M. Complications of antiretroviral therapy initiation in hospitalised patients with HIV-associated tuberculosis. PLoS ONE 8(2): e54145.

Walubo A, Barnes K, Kwizera E, Greeff O, Rosenkranz B, Maartens G. Clinical pharmacology becomes a specialty in South Africa. S Afr Med J. 2013; 301(3):150-151.


Chigutsa E, Patel K, Denti P, Visser M, Maartens G, Kirkpatrick CM, McIlleron H, Karlsson MO. A Time to Event Pharmacodynamic Model Describing Treatment Response in Patients With Pulmonary Tuberculosis Using Days to Positivity in Automated Liquid Mycobacterial Culture. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2012 Nov 26. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 23183433.

Chigutsa E, Meredith S, Wiesner L, Padayatchi N, Harding J, Moodley P, Mac Kenzie WR, Weiner M, McIlleron H, Kirkpatrick CM. Population pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of ofloxacin in South African patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2012 Jul;56(7):3857-63. doi: 10.1128/AAC.00048-12. Epub 2012 May 7. PubMed PMID: 22564839; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3393408.

Cloete T.T,Breytenbach J.W , de Kock C, Smith P.J, Breytenbach J.C,  N’Da D. Synthesis, antimalarial activity and cytotoxicity of 10-aminoethylether derivatives of artemisinin.. Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry 20 (2012) 4701–4709

Combrinck J.M, Mabotha T.E, Ncokazi K, Ambele M.A, Taylor D, Smith P.J, Hoppe H.C, and Egan T.J.  Insights into the Role of Heme in the Mechanism of Action of Antimalarials ACS Chem Biol 2012

Decloedt EH, Maartens G, Smith P, Merry C, Bango F, McIlleron H. The safety, effectiveness and concentrations of adjusted lopinavir/ritonavir in HIV-infected adults on rifampicin-based antitubercular therapy. PLoS One. 2012;7(3):e32173. Epub 2012 Mar 7. PubMed PMID: 22412856; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3296695.

Decloedt EH, Mwansa-Kambafwile J, Van der Walt JS, McIlleron H, Smith P, Rangaka M, Wilkinson RJ, Maartens G. The pharmacokinetics of nevirapine when given with isoniazid in South African HIV-infected individuals. In press Int J Tuberc Lung Dis

Decloedt EH, Maartens M, Smith P, Merry C, Bango F, McIlleron H. The safety, effectiveness and trough concentrations of adjusted doses of lopinavir/ritonavir in South African HIV-infected adults on rifampicin-based antitubercular therapy. PLoS One. 2012:7(3):e32173. PMID 22412856

Decloedt  E. H, Mwansa-Kambafwile J, Van der Walt J, Mcilleron H, Denti P, Smith P, Wiesner L, Rangaka M, Wilkonson R.J and  Maartens G. The pharmacokinetics of nevirapine when given with isoniazid in South African HIV-infected individuals, The International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease (2012)

Decloedt EH, Maartens G, Smith P, Merry C, Bango F, et al. (2012) The Safety, Effectiveness and Concentrations of Adjusted Lopinavir/Ritonavir in HIVInfected Adults on Rifampicin-Based Antitubercular Therapy. PLoS ONE 7(3): e32173. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0032173.

Glans L, Ehnbom A, de Kock C, Martínez A, Estrada J, Smith P.J, Haukka M, Sánchez-Delgado R.A and Nordlander  E. Ruthenium(II) arene complexes with chelating chloroquine analogue ligands:Synthesis, characterization and in vitro antimalarial activity  Dalton Trans., 2012, 41, 2764

Glans L, Taylor D, de Kock C, Smith PJ, Haukka M, Moss JR, Nordlander E. J Inorg Biochem. 2011 Jul;105(7):985-90. doi: 10.1016/j.jinorgbio.2011.03.019. Epub 2011 Apr 6. PMID: 21565148

Herrmann C, P. F. Salas,B. O. Patrick, C. de Kock, P. J. Smith, M. J. Adam, C. Orvig.  1,2-Disubstituted Ferrocenyl Carbohydrate Chloroquine Conjugates as Potential Antimalarial Agents.  In press 01/2012 Dalton Trans., DOI: 10.1039/C2DT12050J (invited paper).

Herrmann C, Salas PF, Cawthray JF, de Kock C, Patrick B.O, Smith P.J, Adam M.J, Orvig C. Modular Synthesis of 1,2- and 1,1´-Disubstituted Ferrocenyl Carbohydrate Chloroquine and Mefloquine Conjugates as Potential Antimalarials. Organometallics 2012, 31, xxxx-yyyy 10.1021/om300392q

Kenyon C, Mfolozi S, Croxford R, Colebunders R, Cohen K.Severe efavirenz-induced vacuolar axonopathy complicated by fatal aspiration pneumonia. Br J Clin Pharmacol.2012. 77 (6) 1070-1072

Lezanne van Heerden , Theunis T. Cloete , J. Wilma Breytenbach , Carmen de Kock  Peter J. Smith ,Jaco C. Breytenbach , David D. N’Da ,Synthesis and in vitro antimalarial activity of a series of bisquinoline and bispyrrolo[1,2a]quinoxaline compounds  European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 55 (2012) 335-345

Makoah N. Aminake, Aman Mahajan, Vipan Kumar, Renate Hans, Lubbe Wiesner, Dale Taylor,Carmen de Kock, Anne Grobler, Peter J. Smith, Marc Kirschner, Axel Rethwilm, Gabriele Pradel Kelly Chibale.Synthesis and evaluation of hybrid drugs for a potential HIV/AIDS-malariacombination therapy. Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry 20 (2012) 5277–5289

Marli C Lombard, David D N’Da, Jaco C Breytenbach, Natasha Kolesnikova, Christophe T Van Ba, Sharon Wein, Jennifer Norman, Paolo Denti, Henri Vial and Lubbe Wiesner, Antimalarial and Anticancer Activities of Artemisinin-quinoline Hybrid-Dimers and Pharmacokinetic Properties in Mice, European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences,  (2012), 834 – 841

Mbeunkui F, Grace M.H, Lategan C, Smith P.J, Raskin I, Lila M.  In vitro antiplasmodial activity of indole alkaloids from the stem bark of Geissospermum vellosii   Journal of Ethnopharmacology 139 (2012) 471– 477

McIlleron H, Rustomjee R, Vahedi M, Mthiyane T, Denti P, Connolly C, Rida W, Pym A, Smith PJ, Onyebujoh PC. Reduced antituberculosis drug concentrations in HIV-infected patients who are men or have low weight implications for international dosing guidelines. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2012 Jun; 56(6):3232-8.

Mehta U, Clerk C, Allen E, Yore M, Sevene E, Singlovic J, Petzold M, Mangiaterra V, Elefant E, Sullivan FM, Holmes LB, Gomes M. Protocol for a drugs exposure pregnancy registry for implementation in resource-limited settings.BMC Pregnancy Childbirth.2012 Sep 3;12:89. doi: 10.1186/1471-2393-12-89.

Melariri P.E, Campbell W, Etusim P and Smith P.  In Vitro and in Vivo Antimalarial Activity of Linolenic and Linoleic Acids and their Methyl.  Advanced Studies in Biology, Vol. 4, 2012, no. 7, 333 – 349

Meredith S, Smith P, Norman J and Wiesner L. An LC/MS/MS method for the determination of Ofloxacin in 20ul human plasma. Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis 58, 2012, 177–181

Nethengwe M.F, Opoku A.R,  P. V. Dludla, K. T. Madida , A. Shonhai , Smith P and Singh M.   Larvicidal, antipyretic and antiplasmodial activity of some Zulu medicinal plants  Journal of Medicinal Plants Research Vol. 6(7), pp. 1255-1262, 23 February, 2012 Available online at 10.5897/JMPR11.1319  ISSN 1996-0875 ©2012 Academic Journals

Oudijk JM, McIlleron H, Mulenga V, Chintu C, Merry C, Walker AS, Cook A, Gibb DM, Burger DM. Pharmacokinetics of nevirapine in HIV-infected children under 3 years on rifampicin-based antituberculosis treatment.AIDS.2012 Jul 31;26(12):1523-8. PubMed PMID: 22546991.

Prinessa Chellan, Kirkwood M. Land, Ajit Shokar, Aaron Au, Seung Hwan An, Catherine M. Clavel ,Paul J. Dyson, Carmen de Kock, Peter J. Smith, Kelly Chibale  and Gregory S. Smith   (2012) Exploring the Versatility of Cycloplatinated Thiosemicarbazones as Antitumor and Antiparasitic Agents.  Organometallics. Pub online 26 06 2012.

Sandi L Holgate, Helena Rabie, Peter Smith and Mark F Cotton. Trough Lopinavir Concentrations in Preterm Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Infants  The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal Publish Ahead of Print  (2012) DOI: 10.1097/INF.0b013e31825046ae

Seddon JA, Hesseling AC, Marais BJ, McIlleron H, Peloquin CA, Donald PR, Schaaf HS. Paediatric use of second-line anti-tuberculosis agents: a review. Tuberculosis (Edinb). 2012 Jan;92(1):9-17. Epub 2011 Nov 25. Review. PubMed PMID: 22118883

Sinxadi PZ, McIlleron HM, Dave JA, Smith PJ, Levitt NS, Maartens G. Association of lopinavir concentrations and plasma lipid or glucose concentrations in HIV-infected South Africans. AIDS Res Ther. 2012 Oct 26; 9(1):32. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 23098156.

Smythe W, Khandelwal A, Merle C, Rustomjee R, Gninafon M, Bocar Lo M, Bah Sow O, Olliaro PL, Lienhardt C, Horton J, Smith P, McIlleron H, Simonsson US. A semi-mechanistic pharmacokinetic-enzyme turn-over model for rifampicin autoinduction in adult tuberculosis patients. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2012 Jan 17. [Epub ahead of print]

Svensson E, van der Walt JS, Barnes KI, Cohen K, Kredo T, Huitema A, et al. Integration of data from multiple sources for simultaneous modelling analysis: experience from nevirapine population pharmacokinetics. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2012. 74(3): 465-76.

Swart M, Ren Y, Smith P and Dandara C (2012) ABCB1 4036A>G and 1236C>T polymorphisms affect plasma efavirenz levels in South African HIV/AIDS patients. Front. Gene. 3:236. doi: 10.3389/fgene.2012.00236
Thelingwani R.S,Dhansay K, Smith P, Chibale K, and Masimirembwa C.M.  Potent inhibition of CYP1A2 by Frutinone A, an active ingredient of the broad spectrum antimicrobial herbal extract from P. fruticosa Xenobiotica, 2012; Early Online: 1–12

Zhang C, Denti P, van der Walt JS, Ren Y, Smith P, Karlsson MO, McIlleron H. Population pharmacokinetic model for adherence evaluation using lamivudine concentration monitoring. Ther Drug Monit. 2012 Aug; 34(4):481-4. PubMed PMID: 22722777.

Zhang C, McIlleron H, Ren Y, van der Walt JS, Karlsson MO, Simonsson US, Denti P. Population pharmacokinetics of lopinavir and ritonavir in combination with rifampicin-based antitubercular treatment in HIV-infected children. Antivir Ther. 2012;17(1):25-33. PubMed PMID: 22267466.

Zhang C, Denti P, Decloedt E, Maartens G, Karlsson MO, Simonsson US, McIlleron H. Model-based approach to dose optimization of lopinavir/ritonavir when co-administered with rifampicin. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2012 May; 73(5):758-67. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2125.2011.04154.x. PubMed PMID: 22126409; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3403203.

Zvada SP, Denti P, Geldenhuys H, Meredith S, van As D, Hatherill M, Hanekom W, Wiesner L, Simonsson US, Jindani A, Harrison T, McIlleron HM. Moxifloxacin population pharmacokinetics in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis and the effect of intermittent high-dose rifapentine. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2012 Aug;56(8):4471-3. Epub 2012 May 14. PubMed PMID: 22585223; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3421597.


Boyles T, Wilkinson LS, Leisegang R, Maartens G. Factors influencing retention in care after starting antiretroviral therapy in a rural South African programme. PLoS ONE 2011; 6(5):e19201.

Boyles T, Cohen K. The prevalence of Hepatitis B in a rural South African HIV Clinic S Afr Med J. 2011;101(7):470-1

Chisholm B, Cohen K, Blockman B, Kinkel HF, Kredo T, Swart A. 2011. The impact of the National HIV Health Care Worker Hotline on patient care in South Africa. Aids Research and Therapy 8(4).

Chigutsa E, Visser ME, Swart EC, Denti P, Pushpakom S, Egan D, Holford NH, Smith PJ, Maartens G, Owen A, McIlleron H. The SLCO1B1 rs4149032 polymorphism is highly prevalent in South Africans and is associated with reduced rifampin concentrations: dosing implications. Antimicrobial Agents Chemotherapy. 2011; 55(9):4122-7.

Chris Lourens, William M Watkins, Karen I Barnes, Carol H Sibley, Philippe J Guerin, Nicholas J White, Niklas Lindegardh. Implementation of a reference standard and proficiency testing programme by the World Wide Antimalarial Resistance Network (WWARN). Malaria Journal 2010, 9:375

Dave JA, Lambert EV, Badri M, West S, Maartens G, Levitt NS. Effect of non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-based antiretroviral therapy on dysglycaemia and insulin sensitivity in South African HIV-infected patients. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 2011; 57:284-9.

Decloedt EH, McIlleron H, Smith P, Merry C, Orrell C, Maartens G. The pharmacokinetics of lopinavir in HIV-infected adults receiving rifampicin with adjusted doses of lopinavir/ritonavir tablets. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 2011; 55:3195-3200.

E Visser-Kift, Kredo T, Barnes KI. Parenteral artesunate access programme aims at reducing malaria fatality rates in South Africa. SAMJ 2011;101:240-1

Gabriels, G., Lambert, M., Smith, P., Hiss, D. Will the new Consumer Protection Act prevent nutritional supplement users from harm? South African Medical Journal 2011; 101(8):543-545

Getahun H, Kittikraisak W, Heilig CM, Corbett E, Ayles H, Cain K, Grant A, Churchyard G, Kimerling M, Shah S, Lawn SD, Wood R, Maartens G, Granich R, Date A, Varma JK. Development of a standardized screening rule for tuberculosis in people living with HIV in resource-constrained settings: individual participant data meta-analysis of observational studies. PLoS Medicine 2011; 8:e1000391.

Grazioze, R, Rathinasabapathy, T, Lategan C, Poulev A, Smith PJ, Grace M, Lila MA and Raskin, I.  (2011) antiplasmodial activity of aporphine alkaloids and sesquiterpene lactones from Liridendron tulipifera L.  J Ethnopharmacology 133 26-30

Haas DW, Kuritzkes D, Ritchie MD, Amur S, Gage BF, Maartens G, Masys D, Fellay J, Phillips E, Ribaudo HJ, Freedberg KA, Petropoulos C, Manolio TA, Gulick RM, Haubrich R, Kim P, Dehlinger M, Abebe R, Telenti A. Pharmacogenomics of HIV therapy: summary of a workshop sponsored by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. HIV Clin Trials 2011;12(5):277–85

Innes S, Norman J, Smith P, Smuts M, Capparelli E, Rosenkrantz B and Cotton M. (2011) Bioequivalence of dispersed stavudine: opened versus closed capsule dosing.  Antiviral therapy 16:1131-4

Jaishree Raman, Katya Mauff, Pedro Muianga, Abdul Mussa, Rajendra Maharaj, Karen I. Barnes. Five Years of Antimalarial Resistance Marker Surveillance in Gaza Province, Mozambique, Following Artemisinin- Based Combination Therapy Roll Out. PLoS One. 2011;6(10):e25992.

Jarvis JN, Harrison TS, Govender N, Lawn SD, Longley N, Bicanic T, Maartens G, Venter F, Bekker LG, Wood R, Meintjes G. Routine cryptococcal antigen screening for HIV-infected patients with low CD4+ T-lymphocyte counts: time to implement in South Africa? South African Medical Journal 2011; 101:233-4

Jönsson S, Davidse A, Wilkins J, Van der Walt JS, Simonsson US, Karlsson MO,Smith P, McIlleron H. Population pharmacokinetics of ethambutol in South African tuberculosis patients. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2011 Sep; 55(9):4230-7.

Katharine EJ Brunette, ‍‍Brian J Anderson, Jennifer Thomas, Lubbe Wiesner, David W Herd and Simone Schulein (2011) Exploring the Pharmacokinetics of Oral Ketamine in Children Undergoing Burns Procedures, Pediatric Anesthesia, 21(6), 653-662

Kredo T, Mauff K, Van der Walt JS, Wiesner L, Maartens G, Cohen K, Smith PJ, Barnes KI. The interaction between artemether-lumefantrine and nevirapine-based antiretroviral therapy in HIV-1 infected patients. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 2011 Dec;55(12):5616-23..

Lombard, MC, N’Da, DD, Breytenbach JC, Smith PJ and Lategan CA (2011) Synthesis, in vitro antimalarial and cytotoxicity of artemisinin-aminoquinoline hybrids.  Bioorg Med Chem Lett 21 1683-1686

Mamadou M Tekete, Sékou Toure1, Alfia Fredericks, Abdoul H Beavogui, Cheick PO Sangare, Alicia Evans,Peter Smith, Hamma Maiga, Zoumana I Traore, Ogobara K Doumbo, Karen I Barnes and Abdoulaye A Djimde . Effects of amodiaquine and artesunate on sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine pharmacokinetic parameters in children under five in Mali. Malaria Journal 2011, 10:275

Matthias D’hooghe, Sara Kenis, Karel Vervisch, Carmen Lategan,Peter J. Smith, Kelly Chibale, and Norbert De Kimpe (2011)   Synthesis of novel 2-(aminomethyl)aziridines and their microwave-assisted ring opening to 1,2,3-triaminopropanes novel antimalarial pharmacophores  European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 46 579-587

Mbeunki, F, Grace, MH, Lategan, C, Smith, PJ, Raskin, I and Lila, MA (2011) Isolation and identification of antiplasmodial N-alkylamides from Spilanthes acmella flowers using centrifugal partition chromatography and ES!-IT-TOF-MS J Chromatography B 8 879 1886-1892

McIlleron, H, Ren, Y, Nuttall, J, Fairlie, L, Rabie, H, Cotton, M, Eley, B, Meyers, T, Smith PJ, Merry, C and Maartens, G. (2011) Lopinavir exposure is insufficient in children given double doses of lopinavir/ritonavir during rifampicin-based treatment for tuberculosis.  Antiviral Therapy 16: 417-421

McIlleron H, Willemse M, Schaaf HS, Smith PJ, Donald PR. Pyrazinamide plasma
concentrations in young children with tuberculosis. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2011; 30(3):262-5.

Melariri, P, Campbell, W, Etusim, P and Smith P (2011) In vitro and in vivo antiplasmodial activities of extracts of Cymbopogon citratus Staph and Vernonia amygdalina Delile leaves  Journal of Natural Products 4 164 – 172

Mugabo, P, Els, I, Smith, J., Rabie, H, Smith P, Mirochnick, M, Steyn, W., Hall, D, Madsen, R and Cotton, M.  (2011) Nevirapine plasma concentrations in premature infants exposed to single-dose nevirapine for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1.  S Afr Med J 101: 655- 658

Orrell C, Cohen K, Conradie F, Zeinecker J, Ive P, Sanne I, Wood R. 2011. Efavirenz and rifampicin in the South African context: is there a need to dose increase efavirenz with concurrent rifampicin therapy? Antivir Ther 16(4):527-34

Steyn  M, N’Da DD, Breytenbach, JC, Smith, PJ, Meredith, S and Breytenbach, WJ  (2011) Synthesis and antimalarial activity of ethylene glycol oligomeric ethers of artemisinin. J Pharmacy and Pharmacology 63 278-283

Steyn JD, Lubbe Wiesner, Lissinda H. du Plessis, Anne F. Grobler, Peter J. Smith, Wing-Chi Chan, Richard K. Haynes and Awie F. Kotzé (2011) Absorption of the novel artemisinin derivatives artemisone and artemiside: Potential application of PheroidTM technology, International Journal of Pharmaceutics, 414, 260–266

Steyn, J D, Wiesner, L, duPlessis, LH, Grobler, A, Smith PJ, Chan W, Haynes, R and Kotze, A.  Absorption of the novel artemisinin derivatives artemisone and artemiside: potential application of Pheroid Technology (2011) Int J Pharmaceutics 414: 260-266

Tadokera R, Meintjes G, Skolimowska K, Matthews K, Seldon R, Chegou N, Maartens G, Rangaka M, Rebe K, Walzl G, Wilkinson RJ. Hypercytokinaemia accompanies HIV‑tuberculosis immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome. European Respiratory Journal 2011; 37:1248-59.

Tekete, MM, Toure, S, Fredericks, A, Beavogui, A, Sangare, CPO, Evans, A, Smith, P,, Maiga, H., Traore, ZI, Barnes, KI and Djimde, AA  (2011) Effects of amodiaquine and artesunate on sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine pharmacokinetic parameters in children under five in Mali.  Malaria Journal, 10: 275

Van Zyl GU, Van Mens TE, McIlleron HM, Zeier M, Nachega JB, Decloedt E, Malavazzi C, Smith P, Huang Y, Van der Merwe L, Gandhi M, Maartens G. Low lopinavir plasma or hair concentrations explain second line protease inhibitor failures in a resource-limited setting. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 2011; 56:333–339.

Visser ME, Grewal HM, Swart EC, Dhansay MA,Walzl G,Swanevelder S,Lombard C,Maartens G. The effect of vitamin A and zinc supplementation on treatment outcomes in pulmonary tuberculosis: a randomised controlled trial. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2011; 93:93-100.

Wiesner L, Katya Govender, Sandra A. Meredith, Jennifer Norman and Peter J. Smith (2011) A liquid–liquid LC/MS/MS assay for the determination of artemether and DHA in malaria patient samples, Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis, 55(2), 373-378

Wilkins JJ, Langdon G, McIlleron H, Pillai G, Smith PJ, Simonsson US. Variability in the population pharmacokinetics of isoniazid in South African tuberculosis patients. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2011 Jul; 72(1):51-62.

Wilson D, Badri M, Maartens G. Performance of serum C-reactive protein as a screening test for smear-negative tuberculosis in an ambulatory high HIV prevalence population. PLoS ONE 2011; 6:e15248.

Wilson D, Mbhele L, Badri M, Morroni C, Nachega J, Chaissson RE, Maartens G. Evaluation of the WHO algorithm for the diagnosis of HIV-associated sputum smear-negative tuberculosis. International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease 2011; 15:919-924.

Wilkins, JJ, Langdon, G, McIlleron H, Pillai, G, Smith PJ, Simonsson, USH (2011) Variability in the population pharmacokinetics of isoniazid in South African tuberculosis patients Br J Clin Pharm 72 1: 51-62

Zishiri, VK, Hunter, R, Smith PJ, Taylor, D, Summers, R, Kirk, K, Martin, RE and Egan T (2011) A series of structurally simple choroquine chemosentitizing dibemethin derivatives that inhibit chloroquine transport by PfCRT Eur J Med Chem 46 1729-1742

Zishiri, VK, Joshi, MC, Hunter, R, Chibale, K, Smith, PJ, Summers, RL, Martin RE and Egan, TJ (2011) Quinoline antimalarials containing a debemethin group are active against chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum and inhibit chloroquine transport via the P.falciparum chloroquine-resistance transporter (PfCRT). J Med Chem 54 6956-6969